Excerpt coming from Term Conventional paper:

Lau, Anita and McKercher, Greg “Exploration versus Acquisition: A Comparison of New and Duplicate Visitors


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An article by Anita Lau and Bob McKercher examines the differences between the motivation and meant activities of first-time and repeat delight tourists to Hong Kong. Their particular study contains a set of questions administered to travelers getting a commercial shuttle service from the airport terminal to the downtown area hotels. A total of 239 first-time and 173 replicate visitors taken care of immediately the study, which was carried out between the months of June and August of 2001, several years following the handover of Hong Kong to mainland China. Results from the study present that the motivations of these two groups of travellers significantly differed, as would their meant destinations. The authors claim that industry experts stand to understand a lot by such analysis, as marketing and development work can be better targeted for each and every group.

New visitors are usually more interested in excitement, exploring the broad variety of activities and attractions found in the location, and visiting icon tourist attractions. Moreover, first-time tourists tended to be small, between the ages of twenty six and 35, and also slept for fairly short amounts of time in Hk. First-time visitors viewed Hong King generally as a stop-off, layover or second destination as they intended to check out other parts of Asia. Furthermore, most new visitors were from long-haul destinations; likewise, tourists via long-haul points of origin just like Japan and North America were more likely to end up being first-time, rather than repeat guests. On the other hand, duplicate visitors were known to come from short-haul locations like landmass China or perhaps Southeast Asia, as well as coming from medium-haul locations like Australia. Representing a mature demographic (between 36 and 45 years old, on average), repeat tourists were keen on engaging in pragmatic activities including shopping or dining, and were significantly less concerned with visiting icon sightseeing attractions. Repeat tourists spent time with friends and family and were not as likely to travel thoroughly throughout the area than new visitors were. Based on the results of the study, sector professionals can realize that new and replicate travelers indeed represent specific markets.

Preferably, a tourist destination will need to achieve a balance between replicate and new tourists, based on the authors. The two groups put money into and at their very own destinations, yet each group focuses on distinct activities. For example , first-time visitors will channel their monies more in tourist attractions, whereas repeat tourists will put money into consumer pursuits like shopping or nighttime entertainment. Based on preceding studies, first-time visitors likewise indicated mare like a concern with top quality of places to stay and transport than the repeat visitors, who had been more concerned with friendliness from the people, food, and facilities. First-time visitors were also keen on exploring social activities and seeking to gain new encounters than replicate visitors, who were generally more interested in relaxation.

Hong Kong, as a great urban travel and leisure destination, signifies unique worries for the travel market and the authors assert that the current study pertains primarily to urban travel spots because vacationers are more likely to go back to places offering the wide range of shopping and dining activities they search for. The authors note that duplicate tourists stand for a “stable source of visitor revenue, ” and should as a result be straight targeted with marketing approaches (2). Handful of prior research have been devoted to exploring this distinct number of tourists since industry professionals generally imagine first-time and repeat tourists are likewise motivated and engage in similar activities at their vacation spot sites. Nevertheless , the current exploration indicates the particular two markets are specific demographically and motivationally. The results will help industry professionals better target their marketing efforts that help regional travel and leisure professionals develop and enhance their infrastructures.

Article Reaction

Lau and McKercher’s examine can considerably help travelling industry experts improve the productivity of their marketing efforts and help travel spots increase their odds of success. Their particular thorough research of preceding research signifies that their very own study distinctly examines right after between first-time and repeat travelers. These groups signify unique, distinct markets, and this study implies that industry pros should customize their promoting plans consequently. Destinations ought to lure both first-time and repeat guests, with an aim for attaining a balance between the two groups. The first-time visitors will be a advantage for existing tourist attractions, key hotels, and tour group agencies. Yet , repeat site visitors will pour money into the local economy through purchasing, dining, and nighttime entertainment. Therefore , spots should focus more attention on replicate visitors than they currently do. This content illustrates the value of comprehending the motivations and wishes of replicate visitors, the industry largely dismissed sector. Further more research ought to include similar studies performed for different urban and non-urban places; the current research focused just on tourists visiting Hong Kong but the document is a good starting point for further marketing research.

Further more research within the differences between first-time and repeat tourists should also analyze different finances classes. Both equally first-time and repeat surfers to destinations can easily and should always be classified in accordance to travel budget, for promoting practices may be tailored for anyone subgroups. Additionally, the current study dismissed the nature of prior journeys for the repeat visitor group. The motivations of former citizens, for example , could greatly vary from tourists who have simply loved spending all their leisure time in Hong Kong. Consequently , future research should take this sort of issues into consideration when designing their surveys.

Furthermore, future analysis should also include exit online surveys, which will determine what activities the travelers actually engaged in vs . the actual intended to participate in. Researchers should also try to even more thoroughly determine what influences the option to return to a destination. For instance , if night life is a main factor in your decision to return to a travel vacation spot, then more marketing initiatives could be directed toward promoting nighttime entertainment. Publications and websites could be designed specifically with this market at heart. Resort and nonurban locations around the world present rich likelihood of luring duplicate tourists, that can help regional economies grow and therefore result in a general boon to the tourism industry.

The needs of first-time and repeat surfers to a destination differ greatly. Repeat visitors do not need the kinds of basic info that new tourists do, such as what major destinations to see in an area or perhaps what museums to visit. For more in-depth research of a given city or region, repeat tourists generally derive very little information or services by travel industry professionals. However , first-time visitors need and demand simple information about a city or area. If the tourism industry desires to15325 cater even more to duplicate tourists, promoting should be overloaded geared toward the two distinct groups. Brochures and websites could possibly be tailored overloaded to either group, by simply including different types of information.

Article Summary: Dolnicar, Sara. “Beyond ‘Commonsense Segmentation’: A Systematics of Segmentation Approaches in Tourism

Dolnicar critiques the present body of market segmentation reports according to travel market. According to the publisher, segmentation is “one of the extremely crucial long lasting strategic promoting decisions a destination or organization makes, ” (248). Breaking up industry into subgroups helps to understand what would otherwise appear to be homogenous consumer groupings. The author points out the two basic approaches to marketplace segmentation reports: a priori and data-driven. Which has a priori segmentation, the analysts divide specific population in respect to some type of prior info, such as demographics. This type of segmentation is called “commonsense” because it will include basic distinctions among groups of persons such as business vs . pleasure travelers. The author notes that the majority of travel and leisure industry marketing research uses purely commonsense segmentations. Yet , relying solely on commonsense segmentation can be limiting and provide for an intensive marketing record. By segmenting the population, consumer bases happen to be significantly constrained. Purely data-driven segmentations are the least prevalent segmentation information. Hybrid studies are frequently used, some of which 1st perform a commonsense segmentation then split the segments in to two data-driven subgroups, and also studies involving a sequence of two commonsense segmentations. The present article reviews past segmentation studies inside the tourism industry and through a systematics, suggests a set of possibly more valuable types of segmentation information.

The systematics produced by this literature review includes a pitch of two different types of segmentation reports. The first, “Concept 4, inches entails 1st performing a data-driven segmentation and then applying commonsense segmentations afterwards. Dolcinar bases the systematics on the study of summer surfers to Austria in 1994 and 1997. The analysis included twenty-two binary claims about the motivations for taking the holiday. Respondents had been divided into half a dozen data-driven, psychographic segments that included those primarily considering relaxation and people interested in sporting activities and excitement. The author offers that additional analyzing all these data-driven portions by following their very own behavior with time would be tremendously helpful to determine how the demands and motives of each group changed with time, and how the demographics changed over time. Additionally, studying each commonsense, von vornherein group could help experts determine what various activities will be correlated with

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