‘Describe and Evaluate Carl Jung’s Theory Concerning Personality Types Essay
Introduction With this essay We aim to display an understanding of Jung’s character types by simply describing and evaluating his theory also to show how they might useful in helping a therapist to determine therapeutic goals. I will as well look at a few of the criticisms levelled at Jung’s theory. Carl Gustav Jung, (26 July 1875 – 6 Summer 1961), was obviously a Swiss psychiatrist and psychiatrist, and the president of synthetic psychology.
His father was a Pastor, and he had a great isolated child years, becoming extremely introverted, it appears he had a schizoid individuality. Although Freud was included in analytical psychology and countless patients with hysterical neuroses; Jung, yet , worked with psychotic patients in hospital. He was struck by the universal symbols (or Archetypes) in their delusions and hallucinations (ref. Dennis Brown and Jonathan Redder (1989) p. 107).
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His work and influence extends way further than understanding persona, and he can considered to be probably the most thinkers to have theorised about life and just how people connect with it. Carl Jung was among many great character theorists whom drew motivation and guidance from the historical models just like astrology and the Four Temperaments. For more than 100 years there has been some form of ‘typology’ in an attempt to categorise individual’s attitudes and behaviour, elizabeth. g. Astrology. Oriental astrologers invented the oldest kind of typology; trusting is that there is a personality attribute that is relevant to each sign and that a person’s character/personality can be grouped in terms of the elements – fire water air and earth.
All those under fireplace had a hot nature and corresponding nature and fortune, etc . The ancient Greeks believed in the ‘four temperaments’ / ‘four humours’, which is often traced back in Ancient Greek treatments and beliefs (400BC), particularly in the work of Hippocrates – the ‘Father of Medicine’) and in Plato’s ideas about character and personality. It had been believed that in order to keep health, people needed a much balance in the four body system fluids: bloodstream, phlegm, yellowish bile, and black bile. These 4 body liquids were associated with certain internal organs and illnesses and also represented the ‘Four Temperaments’ or ‘Four Humours’ of character.
The Ancient greek language physician Galen (AD 130-200) later presented the aspect of four standard temperaments highlighting the humors: the sanguine, buoyant type; the phlegmatic, sluggish type; the choleric, quick-tempered type; and the melancholic, dejected type. Galen also classified drugs in terms of their supposed effects on the several humors. This individual thus created a systematic guide or selecting drugs, which usually although clinically incorrect had been the foundation stone of treating psychological and psychiatric health problems. Carl Jung approached persona and ‘psychological types’ (also referred to as Jung’s psychological types) from a perspective of clinical psychoanalysis.
He was are actually psychologists in the twentieth 100 years to maintain that development extends beyond childhood and teenage years through mid-life and in old age. He focused on creating and making a relationship among conscious and unconscious procedures. Jung assumed that Site 2 there is a dialogue between the mindful and subconscious and without it the unconscious processes can easily weaken and even jeopardise the personality and this is seen in one of his central concepts of division.
He assumed that division is a long term process of personal development that involves creating a connection between your ego and the self, which may be taken to its maximum realisation in the event that worked with plus the unconscious was confronted. (Stevens 1999) Jung, like Freud, referred to the ego when describing the more conscious aspect of personality. In contrast to Freud this individual did not keep pace with minimise the unconscious aspect of the individuality, but instead gave that equal position, complimentary to that particular of the conscious. He labeled the bundled personality since Self; the centre in the total psyche, including both conscious plus the unconscious.
The Self includes all of a person’s features and possibilities whether or not they turn into apparent for a particular stage of lifestyle. The goal of remedies are to guide the consumer to become a entire a human being as personal situations will allow. It absolutely was out of Jung’s confrontation with the unconscious, both in himself and in his patients, that he slowly elaborated his psychology.
In his 1921 operate, ‘Personality Types’, Jung as opposed his 4 functions (as shown below) of individuality to the four points over a compass. Whilst a person faces 1 direction, he or she still uses the different points as being a guide. Most people keep one function as the dominant one although some persons may develop two over a lifetime. It is only the person who also achieves self-realization that has entirely developed all four functions.
His book likewise acted because the compass by which Jung tried to learn how he differed from Freud and Adler, but more importantly, could start to chart the interior world of persons. Jung’s 4 Psychological Capabilities are the following: Rational Capabilities? Thinking (process of cognitive thought)? Sense (function of subjective judgment or valuation) enabling making decisions Irrational Capabilities?
Sensation (perception using the physical sense organs? Intuition (receptivity to unconscious contents) providing the information where to make decision. Jung held a profound appreciation of creative your life and considered spirituality a central area of the human quest.
There is a whole literature relating Jungian mindset and spiritual techniques, primarily coming from a Christian perspective. This kind of literature involves writings by simply Kelsey (1974, 1982) through Sanford (1968, 1981). Caprio and Hedberg’s (1986) Coming Home: A Guide for Going through the Sanctuary Inside is a sensible guide to get spiritual work in the Christian tradition.
It contains striking personal stories, good illustrations, and useful physical exercises. (Frager & Fadiman 2005) Jung’s explanation of personality states that in order to Web page 3 identify a internal type it is necessary to determine whether a person is usually oriented mostly toward his inner universe (introversion) or toward exterior reality (extraversion), known as the critical attitude of the individual to emphasise the importance. Jung’s eight character types will be as follows:? Extroverted Thinking – Jung theorized that people understand the world through a mix of cement ideas and abstract kinds, but the fuzy concepts happen to be ones passed on from other persons.
Extroverted thinkers are often discovered working in the research sciences and arithmetic. •Introverted Thinking – They interpret stimuli in the environment through a very subjective and creative way. The interpretations happen to be informed by simply internal know-how and understanding. Philosophers and theoretical researchers are often introverted thinking-oriented people. •Extroverted Feeling – These people judge the value of things based on objective reality. Comfortable in social conditions, they kind their opinions based on socially accepted beliefs and majority beliefs.
They are often found employed in business and politics. •Introverted Feeling – These people help to make judgments based on subjective suggestions and on in house established values. Oftentimes that they ignore existing attitudes and defy sociable norms of thinking. Introverted feeling people thrive in careers because art experts. •Extroverted Sensing – These people perceive the world as it really exists. Their particular perceptions aren’t colored simply by any pre-existing beliefs. Jobs that require target review, like wine tasters and proofreaders, are best stuffed by vibrant sensing persons. •Introverted Sensing – They interpret the world through the contact lens of very subjective attitudes and rarely see something pertaining to only what.
They make sense of the environment by giving it meaning depending on internal reflection. Introverted sensing people typically turn to several arts, including portrait painting and traditional music. •Extroverted Intuitive – These people prefer to understand the meanings of points through subliminally perceived objective fact instead of incoming physical information. That they rely on hunches and often ignore what they see directly from their senses.
Inventors that come after their technology via a heart stroke of understanding and some faith based reformers are characterized by the extraverted intuitive type. •Introverted Intuitive – These individuals, Jung thought, will be profoundly affected by their internal motivations though they do not totally understand these people. They locate meaning through unconscious, very subjective ideas regarding the world. Introverted intuitive persons comprise a significant portion of mystics, surrealistic music artists, and spiritual fanatics. They are mystic dreamers, concerned with options rather than precisely what is currently present. Seldom recognized by other folks.
Repress realizing. Jung explained himself because an introverted intuitor. Introverts are people that prefer their internal associated with thoughts, feelings, fantasies, dreams, and so on, while extroverts like the external regarding things and individuals and actions. Page some Today what have become mistaken for ideas just like shyness and sociability, partly because introverts tend to become shy and extroverts tend to be societal. But Jung intended for those to refer even more to whether you (“ego”) more often faced toward the personality and outer reality, or toward the collective unconscious and its archetypes.
In that feeling, the introvert is to some degree more mature than the extrovert. The west, of course , beliefs the extrovert much more. Jung warned that people all usually value our very own type many, (Boeree 1996); a notion which is especially useful to therapists today since it is important not to allow personal feelings to happen when working with consumers. Both introvert and extravert overvalue their particular strengths every tends to ignore the different.
To the extravert, the introvert seems egotistical and boring, and to the introvert, the extravert shows up superficial and insincere (Fordham, 1966). Jung believed that the person continued to be an extravert or introvert without change for the whole of his your life, and that inheritance determines if the libido is directed inward or to the outside. Whether a person is an introvert or perhaps extrovert they should deal with the two their internal and external world. And each has their favored way of coping with it, methods which they are comfortable with and good at.
This hypothesised stableness of the introversion-extroversion trait is usually consistent with scientific research using Non-Jungian actions of introversion and extraversion. (Cloniger 2000) Jung suggested a link between each of the behaviour and particular neurotic disorders which will be reviewed later. We now find the introvert-extravert sizing in several theories, notably Hans Eysenck’s. In Eysenck’s (1982) view folks are biosocial animals and that psychology stands with the crossroads of biological sciences and sociable sciences.
This individual states that psychology must become more of the true science with methodology in all the therapist does in order to allow personality theorists to make predictions that can be analyzed and therefore make possible the introduction of the origin theory of personality, which he thinks will unavoidably help the therapist with clients presenting challenges. Jung in contrast the conscious part of the psyche (ego) to a island that rises out of the sea. We notice only the part above the water, although there is a better landmass below the water – much such as an iceberg, the unconscious is situated below (Fordam1953).
The personal unconscious is a water tank of knowledge unique with each individual including perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories which have been put to one side or repressed but not always have sea and for that reason can be reclaimed. Whereas the private unconscious is exclusive to every individual, the ordinaire unconscious is shared or perhaps “transpersonal” and consists of specific potentialities that people all discuss because of each of our human nature, mainly because we all are in groups in addition to some form of society or family members life. This individual believed the collective subconscious did not develop individually but was inherited and consisted of pre-existent forms, the archetypes.
An archetype is a universal thought form or perhaps predisposition to reply to the globe in certain methods and is crucial to Jung’s concept of the communautaire unconscious as it emphasises potentialities in which we might express the humanness. This individual believed that they appeared to all of us in dreams, art, routine, myths and symptoms. Eysenck believed that from a spot of look at of research, Jung’s contribution to the analyze of personality types have been primarily adverse as he acceptable mystical ideas to override empirical data and desired to go past descriptive analysis to the causal analysis of personality. One is not generally defined simply by only one of the eight persona types.
Rather, the different functions exist within a hierarchy. A single function will have a superior impact and one other will have the second effect. Generally, according to Jung, a person simply makes significant use Page 5 of two functions.
The additional two have inferior positions. Jung presumed that it was not really sufficient to provide just one of the above-mentioned functions to become well-rounded personality and be able to encounter life’s encounters. Jung defined two of the four functions as rational and two as illogical; also he used the terms judging/perceiving.
Thinking can easily account for reasoning and judging. Our likes/dislikes are a feeling function. Those two functions happen to be known as rational as they work with our reflecting ability. Sensation and instinct are known as irrational capabilities because it is precisely what is seen in the external world (sensation) and inner world (intuition).
Used, the auxiliary function is always one whose nature, rational or irrational, is different through the primary function. For instance, sense cannot be the secondary function when considering is dominant, and the other way round, because the two are rational and judging capabilities (Daryl Sharp. 1989. p. 19) Among the four capabilities may be developed more, which would be known as the primary or superior function, whilst different ones may be classed as inferior. What this means is that female function is one which a person uses more, even though perhaps, other functions aren’t used a whole lot (inferior) and these might contribute to a person sense unable to manage a situation in which an inferior function is needed to become active.
Jung acknowledged the fact that four orienting functions do not contain anything in the conscious psyche. Will power and memory, for instance, are generally not included. The explanation for this is they are not typological determinants-though naturally they may be affected by the way a single functions typologically thinking is often accompanied by a great inferiority of feeling, and differentiated feeling is injurious to instinct and the other way round (ref. Daryl Sharp.
1987. p. 15) Jung used the term ‘libido’ to establish what this individual meant by simply extrovert and introvert, it was not designed in a intimate way, just like Freud, but as a term for energy. Introversion, produces Jung, “is normally seen as a a reluctant, reflective, retiring nature that will bring itself to itself, shrinks from items and is always slightly within the defensive”. More over, Extraversion “is normally seen as a an fun loving, candid, and accommodating character that adapts easily into a given circumstance, quickly kind attachments, and, setting aside virtually any possible misgivings, will often enterprise forth with careless assurance into not known situations”. (ref.
Daryl Sharp1987. p. 13). The balance involving the two may be disturbed in any event, on the 1 side, extreme withdrawal, introversion or even psychosis, cuts a person faraway from external actuality. On the other side, extremely extroverted or constricted personalities may be cut-off from very subjective feelings or inner fact (Ref. Dennis Brown & Jonathan Redder 1989p.
81). Jung recognized that it is sometimes difficult to work out what personality type many people belong to, he stated, ‘…It is often very difficult to get out whether a person is owned by one type or the other, especially in respect to oneself’ (ref Jung. Anthony Dahon. 2001. p. 99) Persons change all their way of conduct in different instances, because this is the way they would like to be perceived, to be approved by others. Jung reported this as being a persona (or a mask) where a person relays to others, someone they may be not, seemingly to conform to others objectives of them.
This is also known as the simple side from the personality The persona Site 6 forms in early childhood, when a child forms in the mind precisely what is acceptable to his father and mother, teachers and so forth If it is overpowered, oppressed this is what Jung referred to as ‘the shadow’. If the shadow is definitely not allowed to surface, it will eventually grow larger. Jung believed that by facing approximately your darkness, it may allow you to change it. The shadow may well emerge much more extreme anger/dreams. Jung assumed that the darkness is essential mainly because it allows someone to view the earth.
We are every single born having a natural equilibrium. If each of our natural stability is disappointed due to repression or health and fitness then our brains will somehow seek to regain the balance which will Jung noticed as the potency of the subconscious surfacing since ‘the come back of the overpowered, oppressed ‘. The ego emerges out of the home in childhood. It is the individuality, who have you will be, your individual ego appertaining just to you, the middle of awareness. As you go in adulthood there might be trouble between your ego and self, while the persons attitude modify.
Affirmation in the Self liberates its innovative energies and brings specific knowledge that the best life is the life span lived subwoofer specie fraternisation (ref.. Anthony Stevens 2001. p. 157). Jung appeared to place a wide range of emphasis on the Self.
Perhaps this is because it’s the Self, which will he assumed, will in the end envisage difference in behaviour. Having been one of the few individuals in the 20th century to take care of that advancement extends further than childhood and adolescence through mid-life in old age. (ref. Anthony Dahon 2001. g. 38).. Jung disagreed with Freud on his views on libido i. elizabeth. the ‘Oedipus complex’. Jung preferred to call this kind of complex ‘a love aspect’, of a mother/child and not a sexual one/incest, as Freud believed to be the situation.
Jung and Freud equally agreed although, that subconscious thoughts (dreams) were the best way to personal insight of the individual. Following his separating with Freud, overtly as a result of disagreement about the importance of sexuality, nevertheless perhaps likewise over father-son rivalries, Jung again withdrew into what Heisenberg (1970) calls a ‘creative illness’ during which he too executed a personal analysis (ref Dennis Brown and Jonathan Redder (1989) p. 107). But this individual did not use ‘free association’, but provoked unconscious symbolism which he wrote straight down, drew his dreams, extending stories which in turn he told himself. This is the way he started to be involved in deductive psychology.
This individual spent very long periods at his lakeside retreat, alternating among his inner world/ exterior world. Freud, looked back right into a client’s the child years, whereas Jung looked towards the future the did not set much importance into the previous, more about what can be achieved, the goals to purpose for….. the hope….. of change. The unconscious brain of a man, Jung believed, contained a female element (anima), and a woman’s a male element (animus).
These kinds of he believed to be linked to sensual desires, upon what the specific finds attractive in the contrary sex. Another belief Jung held, is that if a person reacts extremely strongly to his anima/animus it may bring about homosexuality. This is exactly what he thought, not that can be proven to be authentic. Page several Jung’s theories, I believe to become useful in therapy, because if you possibly can assess a persons personality, you are able to endeavor to make the therapy even more applicable with their ‘type’ which usually Jung considered as their uniqueness as a person, ‘the wholeness’.
He would not hide lurking behind a client like Freud, finding to use a one on one method, in which the client plus the therapist will be equal; he also applied personal work with dreams, a number of ways to try and promote progress in the consumer, to check out the future. His views on mental illness offered some wish to a sufferer as he believed that within the psychosis experienced there is also a personality hidden, with hopes, desires etc . he tried to understand these people through meaning. Jung observed mental condition as a downside, as poor, but attempted to help the specific face this inferior part and approach his vibrant side to attain ‘wholeness’.
On the whole, Jung’s typology is best utilized in the way the particular one would use a compass; every typological options are in theory available to the Self, but it is useful to establish these co-ordinates the particular one is serves to chart one’s course through life. Jung accepted that the course will certainly not be intractably fixed; it may be without notice be be subject to alteration. Looked at in this mild, awareness of one’s psychological type is not a constraint although liberation, because of it can clear new navigational possibilities in life, the existence of which one might in any other case never have found out (ref.
Anthony Stevens. 2001. p. 101) Jung possessed his experts, mainly Freudian, after his split with Freud; in particular his Archetypes ideas focusing on Jung’s belief that the origins of archetypes (and their basis in the communautaire unconscious) go beyond to the person, in that they will reflect on our ancestors or widespread essence. The critique as well examines a related notion of Jung’s, that the collective unconscious combines us with all the world around us in an immediate paranormal or sync sense. These types of notions of Jung’s are simply to be critically flawed.
Inspite of this, the critique shows that Jung’s belief in the genetic basis of particular unconscious content holds some promise. With this in mind, suggestions are manufactured concerning necessary modification in Jung’s theory and regarding the kind of facts required for the support. (ref. Journey of Humanistic Mindset, Spring 1996.
Vol thirty eight no . 261. 91. g. 223-242. Another criticism regarding Jung is definitely he does not delve into childhood experience; in contrast to Freud and psychoanalysis plus some psychologists discover his theories difficult and drawn out.
Likewise his theory does generate a average amount of research and 2) Not possible to verify or perhaps falsify. (ref. HttpYahoo. com. Page eight Conclusion To be able to efficiently help a client and to determine beneficial goals it is necessary to establish if the person can be primarily directed toward their very own inner (introversion) or external world (extraversion) and next to assess which are the dominant and auxillary psychological capabilities of the consumer. Jung stated that people hook up ideas, feelings, experiences and information by way of associations in the unconscious in a way as to influence their tendencies.
He identified these groups as ‘Complexes’. He believed that they can be organised in regards to particular person or perhaps object plus the therapist might use this knowledge to bring towards the forefront from the client’s mind a situation which they may be obtaining difficult to extricate from. The therapeutic objective of Jungian therapy is to assist the client solve unbalanced areas of their individuality which present in a number of different ways of psychological disturbance. For example: extreme negative opinions, addictions, examples of paranoia, abrupt religious alteration, in appropriate attachments to unsuitable associates, hysteria, odio, depression, hypochondrias or schizoid personality traits since Jung himself had being a boy.
By understanding his theory and how each type may well present the therapist can help them unlock the shadow sides of their personality. This can be a process in which the client can be helped to visit terms with the place of home within their own world as well as to help them see that they are a part of a greater ordinaire unconscious. Much of Jung’s function was about the interconnectedness of people and cultures. Today more than ever even as seek to become “one world” Jung’s assist eastern along with western beliefs and civilizations seems increasingly more appropriate.
The effort of Hans Eysenck through empirical studies across the world has demonstrated that character types are present in all ethnicities and therefore proves that there is a genetic element of personality types. “Such cross cultural unanimity would be unlikely if biological factors would not play a predominant part” (Eysenck, 1990) But just like Jung this individual believed that environmental factors probably figure out how much someone will develop to their full potential. The use of suitable assessment approaches can be invaluable in helping a therapist to produce the untapped potential inside the individual and is also so carrying out contribute to the communautaire unconsciousness and synchronicity around the planet as a whole.