Apple strategy managing essay
Previously known as Apple Computer, Apple. has efficiently became a prosperous company within a competitive consumer electronics industry. The firm managed to outsell others by being ground breaking and distinguishing its products through superior assistance standards and high quality goods. To ensure criteria are fulfilled, Apple outsourced its developing to a trustworthy third party consumer electronics manufacturing firm, Foxconn Technology. In recent years, the smartphone industry is going towards commoditization. This triggered intense competition where constant innovation is needed to withstand it is business marketability.
Apple’s proper capabilities including having customized hardware/software devices has empowered the corporation to put itself in term valuable, rarity, inimitability and non-substitution. However , to continue gaining the market share as the best mobile phone, the corporation might need to review the business appropriateness, so as to maintain its market command in the industry. This strategic analysis and analysis report is going to hence review Apple’s functionality and durability through applying business level strategies just before strategic tips are decided upon.
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In order for Apple to continuously retain their market location, the corporation will need to consider its organization suitability just like its strategic direction. Through market advancement, the company can increase it is presence in new industry segments. We have a need to check into its R&D (Research & Development), in order that new products with unique features can progressively developed. Stand of Material
Introduction (300words) 372
Apple Inc. can be described as technological business that had achieved superb success in designing, producing and advertising its a comprehensive portfolio of products categories including Mac pc, IPad, Ipod device and IPhone, which brings innovations in computers, media tablet, Portable music players and cell phones respectively. Additionally , Apple offers a variety of related software, applications, services, social networking solutions, peripherals and third-party digital articles which signify a revolutionary era for creativity and difference of Apple. (reuters). Even though touch displays in mobile phones are not new, Apple was able to be the first to achieve mass market usage for that
technology simply by creating and launching the first I phone series in January 2007. The IPhone was a lot ahead of its time that it virtually created a new category in the market leaving everyone else playing catch up (Elliot, 2012). The Apple’s target audience includes young adults, college and university students, business people, young children and kids and adults. As of Sept. 2010 29, 2012, it had 412 retail stores in 14 countries around the world. (Financial Report 2012) At the same time, Apple had an intensive 72, 800 regular workers and one more 3, three hundred temporary staff or installers worldwide (Apple 3 season PnL). Financial Performance
In line with the financial record, the company noted total net revenue of $156, 508 million throughout the fiscal season 2012, which usually shows a boost of 63% over fiscal year 2011. In which net profit accounted for $41, 733 million, a 61% boost over money year 2011 (Apple 3 year PnL). As discovered from the survey, Apple’s gross profit perimeter had surge from forty. 5% to 43. 9% in the past a couple of years. This is largely the result of effective implementation of cost-leadership and differentiation approach over the years. (Find source).
The firm’s pervious CEO, Dorrie Job (from 1997 ” 2011) acquired created a culture in which perspective are recognized and is live by their workers. He thinks that communicating the eyesight to the staff is almost as critical as coming out with new products (Elliot. Jay, 2012). This culture was kept surviving even when Bernard Cook had become the CEO (from 2011 ” current) which in turn essentially retained all Apple’s employees on the same page and enact the vision with true passion (Elliot. The writer, 2012) which can be key to proper management (Find that book)
Macro Environment Analysis (700words) 803
PESTEL evaluation will be used to know Apple’s exterior environment and gain an insight of Apple’s future business potential, marketplace situation and operations guidelines. There are half a dozen elements in the PESTEL research; Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (Find
source). Considering advancements, trends, a sign incidents at the global levels, we note that Social, Technological and Legal element of the PESTEL analysis pose a much significant influence on Apple’s mobile phone SBU in comparison with the rest.
Apple’s social environment is certainly one of key contributor for its success today and can continue to business lead it in to greater level in future (wei kang, 2013). It’s ‘think different’ slogan is the exceptional combination of simplicity, creativity and luxury image into the item that reflects the wearer’s individual identification and the wish to be different (Schneiders, 2011). Apple’s pervious CEO Steve Work always a new sense of what customer really wanted and adjusted you’re able to send products collection to meet their wants. Quite simply he explains to them the actual should take pleasure in (VERGANTI, 2010). This is a phenomenon known as the cult promoting in which people do not know their wants right up until cult marketers present that to these people (RAGAS & BUENO, 2005). In simple terms, Cult marketing is actually a tool utilized in strategy to reinforce customer loyalty (Schneiders, 2011). This element has significant positive impact as it allows Apple to have the strongest customer dedication in the world and achieve the very best repurchase price in the digital field (MacNN, 2006). This kind of effect could be seem around the world whenever Apple launch all their new product, Apple’s fans would camp for the in front of the retail store only to purchase one of its newest innovation. This demonstrates Apple’s users really love Apple unlike many others (NUSSBAUM, 2005). In addition , due to the technology development, Apple’s Products such as the IPhone shall no longer be being viewed as luxuries but real essentials goods (source). To succeed in the long term, Apple ought to follow and abide to its guiding principle; ‘don’t follow your clients; Lead them’ which implies that consumer have to be shown a remarkable alternative which usually Apple distinguishes itself and offer these alternatives (MacVarish, 2009).
The market intended for mobile phone and other electronic items that Apple offers puts them in a excitable competition environment driven by fast pace of technological changes. Companies like Apple which manufacture these kinds of products
will have to continually invest substantial amount of money upon research and development (R&D) to produce better performance, new feature and better design goods to counter-top the short life routine and recurrent introduction of recent products on the market (source). According to MacVarish, one of Apple’s guiding principle for his or her innovation technique was ‘Be your own toughest Critic’. In which, Apple aims to give new product lines that replaces old products making their all of them obsolete and so preventing competitor from doing this. With this principle to beat by itself, Apple was able to beat their competitors as well (MacVarish, 2009). Ultimately this enable Apple to lead industry as it performed in the starting of the several generation of IPhone especially IPhone 5 which will become the world’s best-selling Touch screen phone worldwide during the 4th one fourth of 2012 (Maisto, 2013). As a result, Apple’s R&D price increases tremendously from $1. 782 billion in 2010 to $3. 381 billion news (Apple 3 year PnL). Due to their study intensive characteristics to keep creativity ahead of competition, Apple turns into less budget-friendly in over loaded markets and is also exposed to higher risk if it is R&D does not come through (source).
The perceptive property conflict has long being used since tool in technology and management approach by firms such as Apple to gain proper advantage against their rivals. Apple only has filled as much as 250, 000 patents intended for the IPhone and other Smartphone covering the style and functionality of these goods (Cusumano, 2008). Apple got lawsuits all over the world with its competitors such as Samsung korea, Motorola and Nokia both equally suing and being sued over breach of each other peoples patents (source). One such circumstance is the lawsuit in the U. S between the Apple and one of its leading smart phone competition; Samsung when the jury honored Apple $1. 05 billion in destruction and ordered some of Samsung’s Smartphone items off corner in parts with the US (source). This verdict allows the IPhone to gain distinctive benefits in the US marketplace and at the same time helped Apple in advertising and broadcast IPhone originality. In addition the amount of destruction awarded to Apple could be counted as revenue which in turn eventually enhances the profit margin significantly for of Apple that 1 / 4. In conclusion, while most lawsuits Apple filed is sold with little accomplishment, any court decisions that verdict in
benefit of Apple’s patents will probably allow I phone to remain exclusive in the market (Cusumano, 2008).
Sector (Competitive) Analysis 815
Michael Porter’s 5-forces style
Apple’s competitive position and its appeal in the smart-phone market may be explained in analyzing the Porter’s 5-Forces framework (Porter, 1980). Making use of the competitive causes, it would identify the competitiveness and its ability to position itself with diversity. It will display its durability and earnings of the iPhone series. Threat of Potential Entry/Barriers to access ” LOW
The smart-phone industry can be saturated and poses solid barriers to potential traders who want to enter the market. Presently, there are some well-established competition that have a sizable market share and economies of scale which usually limits new entrants from entering. Their strong brand presence and consumer devotion is a barrier to potential entrants (Bostic, 2013). New entrants require a large amount of capital investment, so as to compete up against the market market leaders. Due to huge economies of scale, it is nearly impossible for this new entrants to enter and gain substantive market share. Sometimes, there is a dependence on new entrant to innovate such as creating distinctive features or computer software to contend. But this usually brought about by deficiency of resources because investing in adequate resources would not come affordable. Legal conditions such as us patents and art logos serves as a barrier to new entrants. New traders also encounter barriers such as legal conditions. These are generally patents or trademarks the dominants players have. This market leaders just like Apple Inc include patents upon its varieties of iPhones which includes software such as iTunes. This kind of prevents any kind of infringements by new traders to copy similar ideas. In the end, Apple is still a dominant player in the smart-phone market and competing against Apple really requires a new entrant excessive start-up costs. Reference:
Bostic, K, (2013), “Study locates 20% of Apple iPhone users switched away from Android in past year, Apple Insider Porter, M, (1980), “Competitive Strategy: Tactics for analyzing companies and competitors, Free Press
Bob & Schuster Adult Publishing Group Rivalry between rivals ” LARGE
The smart-phone market is extremely well-developed and a high degree of concentration. It is controlled by a few huge competitors which can be Apple’s solid rivalry. This kind of are major smart-phone players such as Samsung, LG and HTC Mobile phone which has excessive capital opportunities. Smart-phones have grown to be a goods item that any person will require. As such, dominating players have been completely placing a great emphasis on competitive pricing. This will likely enable them to gain an advantage over competition. These opponents are generally of comparable size with Apple in its procedures. Due to firm rivalry, Apple will identify itself in terms of design features and uses. Its competitors have also aggressively seek a leadership situation in the smart-phone market by simply constantly finding and looking for new alterations. The result of technology advancement has also caused an increased competition to seek change in the industry. As a result results in rivalry among smart-phone players to streamline usana products and continuously refreshed its gadgets to satisfy the demand, so as to stay in competition. (Apple Incorporation Report, 2009). References:
Apple. SEC 2009 Form 10-K Filing Webpage 16?
Threat of substitutes ” MODERATE
It may appears that Apple contains a variety of alternatives in the market, nevertheless the nature of Apple’s items sets on its own apart from rivals. Although it may appear that Apple has an comprehensive array of alternatives in the market, but its proprietary mother nature of products models itself aside from competitors. Presently, its risk of alternatives of it is smart-phones (e. g: iPhone5) are still average. But competition are already using on the successes simply by constantly finding and alternatives it with a similar product in the market. Generally, Apple options its parts from various suppliers, hence keeping itself unique inside the smart-phone industry. As such, Apple still have to constantly stay innovative and price conscious so as to effectively positioned alone against various other competitors having a strong personalisation and following. As such, its differentiation strategy can efficiently diversified alone from others.
Bargaining Power (buyers) ” LOW
There are many smart-phone brands on the market that is a replace to Apple’s iPhones, but the bargaining electrical power by customers remain low. The main truth is that Apple’s focuses on differentiating its products from the competitors. Its one of a kind designs, features and conspiracy marketing happen to be testimony to its commitment by customers. Its niche market in the smart-phone industry as well makes buyers less hypersensitive on item pricing. Customers or loyal fans of Apple continue to be willing to pay whatever the price. Even though major stores or businesses have some comparable power to bargaining due to its mass volume, individual buyers have no control especially on their product prices. Apple’s not enough third party options also means that buyers include less choices for various other product. Negotiating Power (Suppliers) ” LOW
Apple relies on a variety of suppliers in its produce for cell phones. Usually, it is not necessarily limited to only one supplier for various parts in the set up of their smartphones. Consequently, this leaves Apple’s suppliers with less bargaining electric power over prices. This enables Apple to efficiently create a competitive advantage over its competition in the market (Apple Annual Report, 2012). Because of its bulk volumes of components, Apple Inc may have a leverage over suppliers through negotiating better terms and pricing. This enables Apple to possess a lower cost structure and ensures a higher profit margin as compared to its opponents.
Apple’s Strategic Capabilities 684
Apple’s bundled system of software and hardware has allowed the company to efficiently market and develop to get their best strategic resources (Dhaliwal, 2009). It was their very own former CEO, Steve Jobs that ripped Apple’s back in the growth level. Apple’s accomplished team society engineers, developers and designers are the business’s key solutions in improvising. This enables Apple to utilize all their knowledge to successfully create a tailored hardware and software system which serve as its key functions. Its the use in its crucial capabilities has allowed Apple to
create a competitive edge and durability in the market (“Electronic Industry Nationality Coalition, 2009).
Resource/Capability| Value| Rare| Imitate| Non-substitution| Relationships with OEMs| š| | š| |
Retail locations| š| š| š| |
Designed Hardware/Software Systems| š| š| š| š| Figure 1: VRIN Table
The VRIN model, a four essential criteria resource-based view, investigates if Apple Inc. uses its strategic solutions to create a competitive advantage. Relationships with OEMs
Apple holds very good relations using its OEM organization partners in China. It includes companies just like Foxconn and Hon Hai Precision Market. This close relationships the firm maintains with its partners assures the outputs made are outstanding and of high quality. This allows Apple to be before other smart-phone manufacturers whom prefers not to outsource production.
Value: Its strong relationships maintained having its business lovers allow Apple to take advantage of possibilities by Foxconn, such as cheap manufacturing costs. This helps to ensure that the firm can provide a sustained value in its companies thus reducing any dangers (Barney, 1991). Inimitability: Rivals can still imitate by following Apple’s strategy of actually finding an ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING partner. But you may be wondering what sets Apple apart from the relax, is its ability to maintain steadily its development of application, which other folks has problems imitating inspite of having an OEM spouse. The purpose of Apple. is to integrate multiple functions into producing an Apple product. This will ensure Apple’s users get the most value when they purchase the final merchandise. Apple Inc. ability of combining most 5 areas of key tactical resources/capabilities into one, allows the firm to be ahead of rivals due to its continual value and its success in taking options and reducing threats. (Barney, 1991). Selling Locations
The introduction of Apple’s retail stores provide the organization with a physical presence and convenience to its customers. It permits Apple to
make a store photo by providing a nice-looking store front and superior customer support. This essential resource serves as an important benefit to Apple which is a family member rarity in the industry. Value: Their strategic places of its retail stores throughout the world provide consumers with the ability to reach its products conveniently. This gives Apple a competitive advantage against competitors. Rarity: Apple’s approach in positioning its retail store and distinguishing its products makes sure that the firm is in a leadership location. Its unique factors of their strategic price tag location really are a rarity for the organization. Accomplished software development teams
Apple has a able team of software developers. This are often properly chosen by the corporation and serves as Apple’s most accomplished programmers. That they assist Apple with bringing out important products. But frequently developers on this caliber are certainly not rare in the IT sector, neither could they be tough to replicate. Hence other smart-phone manufacturers such as The samsung company Mobile also can train or perhaps hire good caliber of developers also. Industrial Style Capability
Industrial design ability is one of Apple Inc. proper resource that serves as an event of the innovation ability. Its capacity for its innovative design clubs are important to the firm. Its innovative design groups also have strong teamwork which forms one among Apple Inc. ideal resource as well. This enables Apple to certainly be incredibly valuable, rare among the competitors and also its trouble imitation.
Customized Hardware/Software Devices
Apple. competitive positive aspects among opponents are having a tailored hardware and software systems. It is one of Apple’s most important abilities as it is just specifically designed and built in the integrated items. Its ‘closed system’ styles also type its specialized as most competitors relied on third party software. One example can be Samsung Cellular adopting the Google’s Android market. Its capability of combining its very own design, application development, components programmers ensures its competitive advantage. Benefit: The benefits of featuring its own hardware and software ensure that the firm gives value to its customers. Rarity: The rarity of
creating a dynamic group of talented staff enables the company to develop specialised hardware and software which can be unique towards the company. This kind of are important factors which pinpoints Apple’s power in the industry. Inimitability: Apple’s inimitability in most of its proper capabilities allows the company to be of a competitive benefits than the competitors. Particularly, its tailored software, iOs app store originated ahead of its competitor, The samsung company mobile who adopted the Google Enjoy store. Though Apple contains a talented crew of software designers, this is still inimitable as competitors can easily train and develop staff. In general, Apple’s strong ideal capabilities still prevent opponents from daunting. Non-substitution: Generally speaking, Apple’s products are substitutable with substitute products. The reason that sets apart from its competitors is its brand id and its customized hardware and software. This kind of development is a unique aspect which not any third-party can easily substitute. Sustainability as Competitive Advantage
To successfully sustain Apple’s ongoing performance and competitive edge, its management may consider seeking special partnerships or arrangements with its OEM lovers to bring costs down and probably contacting more countries with enlargement of Apple’s stores. These kinds of strategies will permit Apple to continually business lead the market using its dominance and market share.
The intention of Apple Inc. is usually to integrate multiple functions in to developing an Apple product. This will likely ensure Apple’s users get the most value after they purchase the last product. Apple Inc. ability of mixing all five aspects of key strategic resources/capabilities into one, enables the company to be prior to competitors because of sustained worth and its accomplishment in currently taking opportunities and reducing dangers. (Barney, 1991). Rare
Inside the smart-phone sector, there are many brands that compete directly with Apple iPhones. But what stands apart against rivals is Apple’s ability to situation and separate its products. The innovativeness in industrial style, specialized hardware/software and its proper retail site
allows Apple to find its uniqueness in the market. This assures Apple Inc. as a effective organisation due to the brand id and high-quality. Inimitate Apple’s inimitability in most of the strategic functions allows the firm to get of a competitive advantage than its rivals. In particular, it is tailored software, iOs app store was developed before its competition, Samsung portable who followed the Google Play retail outlet. Though Apple has a skilled team of software developers, this can be still inimitable as competitors can teach and develop staff. Generally, Apple’s strong strategic capabilities still prevent competitors via inimitating. Non-substitution
Generally, Apple’s products will be substitutable with alternative items. The only reason that sets apart from its competitors are the brand identity and ability to keep your hands on Apple’s supporters. Its skilled teams society developers and tailored hardware/software are an uniqueness to Apple and no third-party can be substituted.
Business Strategy 781
A great analysis demonstrates that there is a technique shift in Apple because of its smart Phone organization as the corporation had a difference in leadership as 2012. Apple’s current goal is to give its consumer the best merchandise experience by providing superior high and low-middle end goods that are easy to use, innovative in design and show, integrate seamlessly and excellence sales and post-sale support experience for consumers (forbes). Generic Competitive Strategy
Apple’s is chasing a hybrid combination of merchandise differentiation and cost management strategy. Together with the combination of the two strategy, Apple managed to achieve high income margin exactly where it generates its smart phone cheaply and selling these people at reduced price.
Competitive scope (broad target)
Under Harry cook’s (CEO of Apple from 2012- current) lead, Apple began to explore fresh territory by building on the success of it is current smart phone
business unit and expanding that into rising markets. This tactic is seen to be put into action together with the announcement from the IPhone 5s and I phone 5c (a watered-down version of the IPhone series) launch (Apple main website). Together with the dual start of the IPhone 5s and IPhone 5c, Apple were able to position the product in both the premium and non-premium category respectively that offers a couple of price items. The I phone 5s will continue to treat their market while the I phone 5c is going to catered to more selling price sensitive customer base especially through the emerging market.
Competitive Benefit (Lower cost and Differentiation)
Considering the fact that Apple will be having a dual IPhone start with practically the same design, features and running on the same operating system (ISO 7), it can achieve economies of range where expense factors just like advertising and research and development will probably be shared. Additionally , the 2 IPhone caters to diverse market portion, allowing Apple to have a larger addressable market where financial systems of weighing scales can be achieved by driving supplier’s cost straight down with the assure of increase order amount. These factors will help Apple deliver price leadership in the smart phone market. However inspite of the increasing work in r and d to bring about innovation also to differentiate all their smart phone, Apple failed to develop sufficient uniqueness and dimension that is valued by their customer. In fact , Apple is replicating its earlier IPhone model with minimum introduction of ‘game-changing’ features. The company’s lessen pace of innovation can be inferred from the latest introduced flagship I phone, the IPhone 5s which retains the dimensions and design of its pervious range topping; Phone a few with little addition to it is feature and gratification (yahoo news).
Apple. incorporation has been capable of perfect the chain of activities in innovation. Apple starts from the new concepts of merchandise design through R&D with its strategy capacity and considerable funding. In that case manufacturers this and finally markets it totally. The process of modifying inputs in outputs short-cuts a number of major and support activities (Hill and Williams, 2001, l. 133). Every single value is considered to be a method to obtain competitive
advantage. Benefit chain analysis is a powerful tool intended for managers to spot the key activities within the firm which constitute the value chain for that business, and have the potential of a lasting competitive advantage for accompany. Therein, competitive good thing about an enterprise lies in it is ability to carry out crucial actions along the value chain better than its opponents Technology Creation
Buying and R&D
The majority of components are generally available by multiple options; a number of elements are currently obtained from single or perhaps limited sources. Hardware items are manufactured by simply outsourcing partner primary in Asia at the. g. Foxconn.
Delegate unprocessed trash acquisition
” Apple works with the OEM companions to assign the recycleables acquisition process but supplies some guidance for top quality control purpose.
Automated acquiring systems
” Apple has implemented sophisticated automated receiving systems to improve the receiving process and minimize facility impact and space for storing requirement
It really is a concern pertaining to suppliers. Apple’s smartphone margins are the maximum in the industry. But since those margins come pressurized, Apple will certainly push suppliers to cut costs. Flat-panel televisions followed an identical pattern, with margins intended for screens sooner or later falling to near break-even levels, says Alberto Moel, an expert at Fossiles harz Research. ( http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323610704578625540722848194.html)
Apple used variety of indirect and direct distribution route, such as retail stores, online stores and direct sales force, 3 Rd
party cellular network companies, wholesalers, stores and value added resellers.
Apple continue to broaden and boost its circulation capacities simply by expanding the number of its own stores worldwide to be able to ensure a high quality buying experience for its item.
Economical providing ” Apple employed teams of style and engineering experts whom develop packaging that’s sleek and light however protective. Effective packaging design and style not only reduces materials and waste, in addition, it helps reduce the emissions developed during transport.
Marketing & Sales
Dhaliwal, A. (2009). “Apple’s Q4 results beat analysts? Estimates; quarterly income rises to $1. 67 billion. Top Media, retrieved about September 13, 2010 via: http://topnews.us/content/27794-apple-s-q4-results-beat-analysts-estimates-quarterly-profit-rises-167-billion “Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition. (2009). Electronic Industry Code of Execute. retrieved on September 16, 2010 via: http://www.eicc.info/PDF/EICC%20Code%20of%20Conduct%20English.pdf Barney J, (1991), “Firm solutions and suffered competitive advantage, Journal of Management, vol. 17, no1, p99-125 Figuring out the approach
Generic Competitive Strategy
Apple is definitely pursuing an extensive differentiation approach. Apple differentiates by offering top quality, exceptional style, and personal service. The scope with their strategy can be broad concentrating on customers ranging from
unsophisticated beginner users to specials needs power-users.
Apple Inc. is concerned with which tactical directions and methods advised addressed the issues the corporation encountered (Johnson & Scholes, 2008). It assists in identifying the business suitability of strategic choices which will relates to the strategic situation. To test upon Apple’s appropriateness on it is proposed business strategies, the Porter’s benefit chain unit is decided to consider the interior factors of the organization. Strategic Directions
Presently, Apple’s infrastructure is very well established and developed. Nevertheless the corporation should certainly still continue in its system developments, in order to achieve backside its substantial market share inside the smartphone sector. Its market penetration business strategy relies heavily on its major activities such as inbound strategies, outbound strategies; and prospective. To continue moving towards the marketplace penetration path, its support activities perform play separate. The technology development will then be in a position to assist the support to the suggested strategy.
Apple may need to think about a strategic drift to gain a competitive benefit in its business strategy. The item development technique gets its assistance from support activities including developing new releases to meet consumer demands. To improve its firm performance and market share, Apple is launching new features just like finger messfühler on its new iPhone5s and also coloured version of its iPhone5c (Apple. com). This new features or application somehow provides a deciding factor whether Apple is going to achieve its business strategy or affects its corporate performance.
At present, the firm is usually adopting the marketplace development approach. It assists
Apple in venturing into new market sections. Thus, you will find the importance to focus especially for the primary activities of incoming and outbound logistics, potential. Apple remains to be able to rely on its OEM partners to get resources particularly in manufacturing, which will serves as Apple’s key proficiency. To move ahead, Apple may need to enter or develop new market, including in developing markets which usually it has no presence. Having its strong cha?non partner, including Foxconn, Apple is able to utilize its strategies part and its particular strong sales and marketing to open up new marketplace. Hence, these kinds of three advised business strategies are suitable to gauge the value string, and Apple can carry these strategies ahead. Apple will have to consider which strategy will achieve its overall organization objectives to sustain itself in the market.
1) http://in.reuters.com/finance/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=AAPL.O (reuters) 2) http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/AAPL/2634031917x0x444195/E7A8FE5F-8835-46AB-ACC2-6FA28DFB546D/Three_Yr_Financial_History.pdf (Apple 3 year PnL) 3) Porter. ME, (2008), ‘The Five Competitive Forces that Sharpe Strategy’, Harvard Business Review, volume. 86, no . 1, pp. 78-93, Business Source Complete, (online) Offered by: EBSCOhost repository [Accessed: 15 sept 2013] (Porter, 2008) 4) MacVarish, B. (2009, August 13). Guiding Guidelines of Apple Innovation. brucemacvarish. com. Recovered January 29, 2010, via http://www.brucemacvarish.com/2009/08/guiding-principles-of-innovation-at-apple1-dont-follow-your-customers-lead-themapple-tends-to-place-less-emphasis-on-evide.html (MacVarish, 2009) 5) Cusumano, Meters 2008, ‘Technology Strategy and Management: The Puzzle of Apple’, Communications Of The ACM, 51, 9, pp. 22-24, Business Resource Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 July 2013. (Cusumano, 2008) 6) http://www.forbes.com/sites/mobiledia/2012/02/19/nuts-apples-ceo-reveals-future-strategy-google-to-expand-into-hardware/ (forbes) 7) (http://sg.news.yahoo.com/photos/apple-unveils-iphone-5s-iphone-5c-slideshow/five-colors-iphone-5c-cases-photo-181338126.html) (yahoo news) 8)