Software Reuse Essay
Abstract Effective recycle of software goods is reportedly increasing productivity, saving period, and minimizing cost of computer software development. In the past, software reuse focused on repackaging and reapplying of code modules, data structures or perhaps entire applications in the new software jobs (Prieto-Diaz 1994). Recently, however , it has been acknowledgedas beneficial to redeploy software elements across the whole development life-cycle, starting with website modelling and requirements specs, through computer software design, coding and assessment, to routine service and operation. There were as well attempts to reuse areas of project enterprise and technique, development processes, and interaction structures.
Yet , as the concept of reusing software components is very clear at the code level (whether in source or binary form), the very same concept becomes more fuzzy and hard to grasp once discussed in the context of reusing specifications and designs (whether in calcado or diagrammatical form), or quite incomprehensive when applied to software informal requirements, domain knowledge or human abilities and expertise (expressed in natural dialect, knowledge representation formalism, or perhaps existing just in humans). This problem of dealing with reusable software artefacts resulting from the first stages of software development, particularly requirements specs, attracted each of our particular desire for the reusability technology.
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Our work is usually motivated mainly by the probability of improving the requirements elicitation by systematic reuse society specifications and the components with information extracted from consumer informal requirements documents. The issues and problems that we try to investigate in this research are best illustrated by following affirmation outlining current needs as well as the goals for future years research in requirements reuse: More research is necessary on the positive aspects and the important methods for requirements reuse.
For example , what are requirements components’, why is them recylable, how can we store and retrieve all of them, and how can we write a requirements specification which gives us the best probability of developing or reusing existing requirements components? (Hsia, Davis et approach. 1993).
Explanations To address the difficulties advanced simply by Hsia, Davis and Kung, and to steer clear of any misunderstandings farther through this paper, we have to clearly specify some significant concepts of software reuse, reusability, reusable pluie, their conceivable forms, reusability methods, their very own major motivators and blockers, etc . Consequently, we adopt our meanings from Prieto-Diaz (Prieto-Diaz 1989) as follows: – reuse may be the use of recently acquired concepts or items in a new situation, that involves coding development information at several levels of indifference, storing this kind of representation to get future research, matching of new and old situations, duplication of currently developed objects and actions, and their variation to suit new requirements; reuse is definitely the use of previously acquired principles or things in a new situation, this involves development development info at different levels of hysteria, storing his representation intended for future reference, matching of recent and old situations, duplication of currently developed objects and activities, and their adaptation to suit new requirements; reusability is known as a measure of the ease with which one can make use of those previous concepts or perhaps objects inside the new circumstances. Reuse Ruse The object of reusability, reusable artefact, can be any information which a creator may need in the act of creating software program (Freeman 1983), this includes any of the following application components: – code fragments, which come in a kind of source code, PDL, or various charts; reasonable program structures, such as segments, interfaces, or perhaps data structures; efficient structures, electronic. g. technical specs of capabilities and their choices; domain knowledge, we. e. scientific laws, types of knowledge websites; knowledge of development method, in a type of life-cycle versions; environment-level information, at the. g. experiential data or users feedback; artefact transformation during development method (Basili 1990); etc . A controlled variety of reuse artefacts constitutes a reuse library.
This sort of libraries need to contain not merely reusable elements but are also expected to give certain types of solutions to their users (Wegner 1989), e. g. storage, looking, inspecting and retrieval of artefacts via different app domains, associated with varying granularity and abstraction, loading, backlinks and invoking of kept artefacts, indicating artefact interactions, etc . The major problems in the utilisation of such recycle libraries happen to be in deciding appropriate piege classification strategies and in selecting methods to efficiently and proficiently search the library. To bypass the difficulties with recycle libraries, the usage of specialised domain-specific languages was proposed as an alternative.
Such languages use strict syntax and semantics identified in terms of an application domain and its particular reusable artefacts. While improving notational conformance with a predetermined syntax and semantics, the domain-specific languages restrict the amount of possible classification and search mechanisms found in the process of crafting a problem remedy, e. g. as in DRACO (Neighbors 1989) or GIST (Feather 1989). Artefact Characteristics Certain classes of software pluie have been referred to as eminently suited to become part of a reuse library and stay, subsequently, put to use as recylable software methods.
Such artefacts usually talk about a number of qualities, deemed to actively showcase reusability (Biggerstaff and Richter 1989; Matsumoto 1989; McClure 1989), those artefact will be perceived to become: – significant, i. elizabeth. they are of general electricity and of satisfactory level of indifference, so that they could be used in numerous contexts, and become applicable to variety of troublesome areas; definite, i. electronic. they are made and documented with a clarity of goal, their features and limits are easily identifiable, interfaces, required resources, exterior dependencies and operational environments are specified, and all additional requirements are explicit and well defined; transferable, i. e. it is possible to easily transfer a great artefact to a new environment or problem domain, this usually means that it is self-contained, with couple of dependencies upon implementation-related concepts, it is fuzy and very well parametrised; additive, my spouse and i. e. it must be possible to seamlessly create existing artefacts into new releases or other reusable parts, without the need pertaining to massive software modifications or perhaps causing undesirable side effects; formal, reusable artefacts should certainly, at least at some degree of abstraction, always be described using a formal or perhaps semi-formal note, such an procedure provides way to formally confirm an pluie correctness, that enables to predict breach of honesty constraints during artefact composition, or to measure the level of completeness for a merchandise constructed of recylable parts; machine representable, those of the artefacts that can be described in terms of computationally determined attribute beliefs, which can conveniently be decomposed into equipment representable parts, which can be reached, analysed, altered and possibly customized by computer-based processes, have a clear potential for becoming part of a flexible recycle library; those artefacts can be easily searched, retrieved, construed, altered and ultimately integrated into greater system; self-contained, recylable artefacts which in turn embody a single idea are easier to understand, they may have less dependencies on exterior factors, whether environmental or perhaps implementational, they have interfaces that happen to be simple to use, they are easier to prolong, adapt as well as; vocabulary independent, not any implementation terminology details ought to be embedded in reusable artefacts, this also means that most able to be used artefacts will be those which will be described when it comes to a requirements or style formalism, or perhaps those low level solutions which may be used coming from variety of development languages on a given implementation platform, possibly by suitable macro cpus or hyperlink editors; able to symbolize data and procedures, we. e. recylable artefacts are able to encapsulate the two their info structures and logic, down to a fine feed of detail, such an procedure increases piege cohesion and reduces the possibility of artefact joining by prevalent data handed via arguments or global variables; verifiable, as any other application components, reusable artefacts ought to be easy to check by their maintainers, and, precisely what is even of the greater importance, by their users who add reusable parts into their individual systems, and who will need to have the capability to monitor the constituents computational context and their interfaces; simple, minimum and explicit artefact interfaces can encourage developers to use pluie, simple and easy to know artefacts can be easily customized by builders to suit fresh applications; and very easily changeable, selected type of complications will require pluie to be adopted to the fresh specifications, these kinds of changes should be localised to the artefact and require minimum of side effects. Reuse in Software Life-Cycle Software applications can be methodically reused across the entire advancement life-cycle, my spouse and i. e. domain name analysis, requirements specification, design and setup, it has the place even in the post-delivery stages of development, elizabeth. g. its continuing quality assessment or perhaps software repair.
Implementation. Early experience with application reuse was limited to reuse of software code in source and binary kind. A great emphasis was placed on development of programming languages which may support numerous methods of clustering, packaging, modularisation, parametrisation and sharing of data and code via info types and code prevents (ALGOL), called common prevents (FORTRAN), parametric functions and macros (FORTRAN and LISP), copy your local library (COBOL), info hiding (PASCAL), modules (SIMULA and MODULA), generic packages (ADA), things and classes (SMALLTALK and C++), etc . The idea of code sharing was further supported by various os utilities which allowed 3rd party program collection, creation of relocatable libraries or hyperlink editing (Reed 1983).
In those beginning, no significant effort on a commercial scale was carried out to reuse the early life-cycle artefacts, my spouse and i. e. models, specifications, requirements or venture models. This example was caused by: – the lack of awareness of potential rewards that could be gained from using again more subjective software pluie; unavailability of commercial strategies embracing application reuse in their centre-point; simple nature of early standards and design documents; and shortage of tools capable to represent technical specs and designs within a computer-processable contact form.
At the same time, the construction of libraries was known to boost software creation productivity, and was used in nearly every commercial enterprise; system code was written relating to a formal grammar and it followed established semantic rules; and the construction of code libraries was supported by editors, compilers, loaders and linkers, which could be freely customised to accommodate numerous reuse duties. Design. Today’s development approaches, such as object-oriented methods (Graham 1994) or rapid application development (Martin 1991), strongly advocate using again software pluie at the earliest possible level of the computer software life-cycle.
Plan design strategies are now competent of using well-defined diagrammatic notations, which usually allow creation of paperwork which are less complicated and more clear and consise than code, which obviously exhibit their very own conceptual articles, which are very well structured and modular, and which enable dealing with issue complexity at various degrees of abstraction and granularity. With the advent of CASE tools (McClure 1989) the contemporary style techniques are usually supported by specialized software environments capable of capturing design and style ideas in a form inclined towards further more processing by computer-based recycle tools.
Today, it is also typically perceived that reuse society designs, as opposed to code reuse, is more economic, and cognitively a much more user-friendly process. Requirements Specification. Whilst application of recycle techniques to software program design has visible positive aspects over code reuse, a lot of researchers (Matsumoto 1989) declare further increases in the range of software reusability when given opportunity to recycle modules at higher degrees of abstraction, i actually. e. software specifications and requirements.
Other folks support this kind of claim, giving voice the need to recycle large-scale artefacts going past design elements and which include entire design frameworks and domain assets (Li 1993). Bubenko ainsi que. al. (Bubenko, Rolland et al. 1994) further recommend to combine design and recycle libraries to accommodate development procedures capable of reusing conceptual schemas to back up the process of requirements engineering.
Such an approach provides users with the library of reusable parts that could match their requirements, improves the caliber of requirements technical specs by making offered well-defined conceptual components as soon as requirements requirements, and increases the output of the requirements engineering procedure by shortening the requirements formalisation effort (Castano and De Antonellis 1994). In the RESTART system, Morel and Faget (Morel and Faget 1993) aim at advancing this approach for the entire computer software life-cycle.
This kind of advances in requirements and specification reuse were in part facilitated simply by: – Development of the brand new types of programming different languages, such as PROLOG or EIFFEL, which incorporate elements of plan specification and design (via logic and class specification) at the degree of code, this kind of approach stimulates interpretation and reuse of abstract software descriptions through the life-cycle; dissemination of prototyping tools and visible programming conditions capable of graphic representation of customer requirements as well as the subsequent era of code or code skeletons (Vonk 1989; Aplanir and Burnett 1990), facilitating effective structure of applications of domain-specific, visual, reuse components; introduction of formal requirements and specification languages, such as RML (Greenspan, Mylopoulos ou al. 1994), Z (Spivey 1989), VDM (Woodman and Heal 1993) or LARCH (Guttag and Horning 1993), permitting representation, structuring, verification, and reuse of specs components; object-oriented solutions integrating numerous diagrammatic methods into a single strategy, e. g. Information Anatomist (Martin 1993), or unifying elements of conceptual modelling, system specification and design as one consistent notation, e. g. Object-Oriented Conceptual Modelling (Dillon and Suntan 1993), such object-oriented advancement methods let creation of abstract conceptual schemata which is often readily designed by instantiation and inheritance to fresh problem alternatives; development of full-text sources utilising useful information collection methods (Salton 1989), being introduced as being a repository intended for storing, classification and future retrieval of design and specification texts (Frakes and Nejmeh 1988; Maarek, Super berry et al.
1991; Fugini and Faustle 1993); and ultimately application of knowledge-based approaches and intelligent software development assistants in requirements obtain and specification (Lowry and Duran 1989); Domain Examination. The final frontier for application reuse inside the development life-cycle is a complete analysis of your given trouble domain. This approach is grounded on the opinion that within a real-life circumstance reusability is usually not a widespread property of program code or highly processed information but it really rather depends upon a context of the issue and its answer, which are relatively cohesive and stable (Arango and Prieto-Diaz 1991).
The main purpose of domain analysis is the construction of a domain name model of which will components could possibly be reused in solving variety of problems. Such a model will customarily consist of definition of ideas used in the specification of problems and software devices, definition of normal design decisions, alternatives, trade-offs and justifications, and application implementation ideas. Such an auto dvd unit may take number of different forms, to include (cf.
Figure 1): – definitional style, which provides expertise taxonomies and actonomies describing domain principles, their framework, semantics, and relationships between them; understanding representation unit, giving domain name semantics and explanation services; domain-specific languages, which in turn when expressed as formal grammars and supported by parsers may present direct translation of specifications into exe code; instructional designs, indicating the methods of constructing working systems in a presented domain, these kinds of methods can be described by standards, guidelines, templates, or perhaps interface definitions; useful models, talking about how systems work, applying representations including data circulation diagrams or program description languages; structural designs, provide means to define structures of site systems; and so forth In the process of constructing a domain model, the normal knowledge coming from related systems is generalised, objects and operations common to all devices in a provided domain are identified, and a model is defined to describe their inter-relationships. The main issue with this process is that knowledge sources for domain name modelling (as found in technological literature, existing implementations, consumer surveys, experienced advice or current and future requirements) are frequently verbose and casual.
Thus, special techniques and tools happen to be needed to manage it, elizabeth. g. knowledge acquisition equipment, entity-relationship modeling tools, object-oriented methods, semantic clustering tools, CASE and parsing tools (Agresti and McGarry 1988). Reuse Method. In this function, we will view the process of software reuse as including three levels of pluie processing (cf. Figure 2), i. at the. their examination, organisation and synthesis.
Artefact analysis starts with recognition of artefacts in existing software products (Ning, Engberts et approach. 1994) or stuck in a job currently analysed domain (Arango and Prieto-Diaz 1991), this is certainly followed by their particular understanding and representation within a suitable formalism to reveal their function and semantics, with feasible generalisation to widen the scope with their future applications. Piege organisation comes with classification and storage of artefacts within an appropriate software program repository, the following repository search and ruse retrieval whenever they are needed in the reuse process.
Artefact synthesis consists of feu selection from a number of recovered candidate ruse, their adaptation to suit the brand new application, and their integration in a completely new software program product. The duties undertaken inside the three phases of pluie processing are also frequently talked about from the perspective of development-for-reuse and development-by-reuse (Bubenko, Rolland et ing. 1994). Development-for-reuse is definitely emphasising the development of the reuse library, involving the identification, understanding, generalisation, and the subsequent classification and safe-keeping of pluie for later recycle.
Development-by-reuse is concerned together with the effective utilization of the reuse library to aid new software program development, it involves searching, retrieval, assortment, adaptation, and integration of artefacts into the software system below construction. While reuse is very independent of any particular development method model, that, thus, could possibly be embedded right into a variety of strategies, to include design model (Hall and Boldyreff 1991), speedy prototyping (Martin 1991), object-oriented design (Meyer 1987), etc . While the inclusion of recycle into a development cycle is of a significant gain to the entire process, simultaneously it may complicate the development procedure (e. g. see Determine 3).
Likewise, reuse jobs may substantially overlap with those performed in other creation phases, elizabeth. g. software program integration or maintenance. The separation of concerns lead some research workers (Hall and Boldyreff 1991) into pointing out that reuse must arise across distinct projects or perhaps problem areas, as opposed to those tasks which aim at the alter, improvement or perhaps refinement society undertaken within a single task which should not be viewed as reuse, e. g. software porting, which just aims at implementing existing software product to be able to hardware or operating system environments; software maintenance, which in turn strives to take care of software erroneous behaviour in order to alter the existing program to fit changing requirements; and software reconfiguration, which provides a procedure for customising software program to be combined with different hardware components or making only a subset of its features available to the person.
Assessing the Reuse Procedure and its Goals The value of software reuse can not be gauged in simple, unambiguous, congruous and canonical vogue. One of the reasons for this difficulty is based on the fact that there is a variety of recylable artefact types and the strategies and tips for their creation, manipulation and maintenance. Another reason can be emerge inadequacy of measuring tools to assess the reuse profit or the hindrance, as you possibly can measured using variety of antagonico metrics, many of which are based on monetary, some upon technical, then again others about social or cognitive concepts.
Finally, is it doesn’t numerous software program stakeholders who are not prone to agree on the most popular goals of the reuse method itself, as they will almost all have specific and other development desired goals. The a contentious on the success or failure of reuse methods is best reflected in the misconceptions, biases and preconceptions of software developers and management, this section will, hence, summarise this kind of opinions as they are reported in the software architectural literature. Recycle benefits.
Taking on reuse-based application development method attracts a number of well recognised economic and psychological benefits to both end-users and developers (Tracz 1988b; Hemmann 1992). Such as the following. Savings in costs and time. Being a developer uses already pre-defined components, consequently, the activities linked to components specs, design and implementation are actually replaced with locating components, their very own adaptation to accommodate new requirements, and their the use. Experience shows (also from other fields, like digital engineering) which the latter pair of activities usually takes less occasions and therefore costs less.
It should be noted, although, that progress components pertaining to reuse likely will attract additional effort, time and expense. This costs, however , can be offset simply by savings in many different software projects. Increase in productivity. A set of reusable artefacts may frequently always be viewed as a high-level vocabulary of ideas drawn from a given problem site.
Hence, a developer is given an opportunity to assist more summary notions related directly to the situation at hand and ignore low-level, implementation details. It has been displayed that doing work at higher level of00 of abstraction leads to an increase in development efficiency. Embrace reliability. Recycle library can be viewed as a software merchandise itself, therefore , its advancement follows a regular cycle of requirements specification, design, implementation, testing, documentation and routine service.
By the very assumption, an individual base and a life-span of reuse artefacts is a lot greater than regarding any individual product, thus, the reliability of such artefact is also improved. This also leads to an improved reliability of systems constructed of reusable components instead of of those constructed entirely from scratch. Increase in ease of maintenance. Devices constructed of reusable parts are usually simpler, smaller sized, and more summary.
Their design and style is closer to the problem site and their trustworthiness is greater. This of course has an incredibly positive impact on the quality of such devices maintenance. Improvement in documentation and testing. Reusable components are usually accompanied by good quality documentation through previously developed tests plans and situations.
Whenever a new system is produced by basic selection and altering of such components, then, their documentation and tests will have to be much easier to develop as well. High speed and low cost replacing aging devices. As the reuse-based devices share a very large assortment of program logic via the recycle library, therefore, they are even less complex and far smaller in size than patients developed from day one.
Such devices will as a result need much less effort during porting or adaptation to new software and hardware environments. It should also be observed that it will normally always be the reusable components of the machine that is technology intensive, and therefore, very expensive to formulate, e. g. graphical user interfaces, databases, communications, unit control, etc . Sharing that cost across several devices would certainly reduce it when a global replacement of computing assets is called for. Reuse drawbacks. Concurrently, in practice, revolutionary gains in productivity and quality can not be achieved as a result of some preconceptions held by developers and their management (Tracz 1988b; Hemmann 1992).
The claims frequently put forward simply by programmers consist of: – reusing code, as compared with development of entirely new systems, is definitely boring; locally developed code is superior to that produced elsewhere (NIH factor); it is better to rewrite complicated programs from the beginning rather than to keep it; there are not any tools to assist programmers to find reusable pluie; in majority of instances, developed programs are too specialist for recycle; used software creation methodology would not support software program reuse; reuse is often ad-hoc and is unplanned; there is no formal training in reusing code and styles effectively; useful recylable artefacts are generally not supported for the preferred advancement platform; the reuse process is too slow; interfaces of reusable ruse are too difficult to use; code with reusable components is often too big or as well inefficient; programs constructed of recylable components aren’t readily easily transportable; reusable components usually do not conform to used standards; reuse techniques do not level up to significant software jobs; you will discover no incentives to recycle software. At the same time, management as well raises arguments based on the subsequent arguments: – it will take too much effort and time to expose reuse in workplace; perceived productivity gains will mean cuts towards the project man-power; customers may expect reusable ruse to be delivered with their product; it may be difficult to prevent plagiarism of reusable artefacts; recycle of code may lead to culpability in case of software program failure; the cost of preserving reusable your local library is prohibitive; administration is certainly not trained in computer software development methods with reuse; you cannot find any coordination among software project partners to introduce reuse.
Such complications of understanding often result from irrational, even so, deeply seated myths regarding reusability as well as the reuse method. A selection of this kind of myths (cf. Table 1) were reported and eventually demistified by simply Tracz (1988a).
Reuse motivators. While the common prejudice, miconceptions and downright myths between developers and management prevent companies to effectively bring in reuse within their mainstream creation, Frakes and Fox (1995) show within their survey that only few elements listed above possess any true impact on the success or failure society reuse, we. e. the type of app domain althought the reason why for this phenomenon are not regarded, it seems that certain types of industries present significantly larger levels of recycle (e. g. telecommunication companies) in certain parts of the life-cycle than other folks (e. g. aerospace industries); perceived economic feasibility in those organisations where administration convinced its software designers that reuse is appealing and economically viable had a much higher success in the launch of recycle into individuals organisations; high quality and functional relevance of recycle assets boosts the likelihood of the assets to be reused; common software program process although builders themselves tend not to regard one common software method as endorsing reuse, we have a strong relationship between the gains in the process maturity and the benefits in the level of software reuse; and finally, reuse education education about recycle, both in college and at operate, improves recycle and is a necessary part of a recycle program, nevertheless , since the problems of software reuse are rarely talked about in the academics curriculum, it is vital for supervision to bear the responsibility to provide reuse-specific training to its personnel.
The same research also showed that elements, widely perceived as reuse motivators or inhibitors, have simply a minimal influence on the reuse process, electronic. g. use of certain programming dialects and paradigms it is sometimes perceived that structured, do it yourself, object-oriented, or high-level ‘languages’ improve the prospects of successful software recycle, the collected statistics, yet , show no such correlation; utilization of software support environments and CASE even though development tools are frequently marketted as significantly enhancing computer software reusability, a few studies show which the current used CASE tools are not especially effective to promote reuse of life-cycle items across jobs in an enterprise; career of staff experienced in software engineering it seems like to be apparent that experienced software creation practitioners will be potentially better reusers than patients who have simply no formal learning software executive, however despite this opinion, it can be proven that experience and knowledge of software program development principles is not a substitute for learning methods and techniques certain to recycle activities; provision of recognition advantages as a motivation to promote reuse practices inside the organisation it is likely that simply monetary returns are a more beneficial motivator pertaining to implementing recycle practices; existence of perceived legal impediments towards the utilisation of reusable software because majority of recycle efforts focuses on the in-house development of reusable artefacts, as a result, the legal issues are of less matter; lifestyle of recycle repositories many organisations consider this sort of repositories as central for their reuse work, practice, yet , shows that all those organisations that do not effectively use sophisticated computer-aided equipment assisting the classification and retrieval society artefacts achieve similar levels of reuse because those who are active proponents and users of such computerized repositories; the size of a great organisation doing a software development project the task or advancement team dimensions are often used because an argument against the introduction of any formal recycle process, little companies believe that the narrow scope of their application website will limit the potential benefit for reuse, while the big companies fear the necessary expense of assets and money to properly put into practice systematic reuse, the stress in these two cases in unwarranted as well as the likelyhood of any success or failure of reuse work is independent of the company or project size; considerations of software and process top quality most of surveyed developers had generally positive knowledge in using again various application assets designed outside their home companies, overall, the quality worries had little impact on the amount of software reuse, the situation could possibly be different if the quality of used again assets would have been to deteriorate; reuse measurements in majority of corporations measurement of reuse amounts, software top quality, and computer software productivity are certainly not done, yet , those company which measure software reusability are not receiving any significant higher reuse levels than those which do not monitor all their successes or perhaps failures in reusing software artefacts, hence in practice, testing software recycle has hardly any effect on the whole of the reuse procedure. Finally, Krueger (1989) supplies four tenets of the good software recycle, the tenets based on the technical and cognitive factors which he believes will ultimately translate into variety of advancement goals to achieve an effective insurance plan on software reusability, i. e. reuse must reduce the intellectual effort society development; constructing systems of reusable components should be easier than to building them from day one; getting reusable pluie must be better than building them; understanding artefacts is important to their successful selection.
Overview This daily news defined the concepts of software reuse, reusability, reuse pluie and recycle library. It listed individuals attributes of application artefacts which usually increase the opportunity of them getting reused, e. g. they should be expressive, definite, transferable, additive, formal, machine representable, self-contained, language independent, in a position to represent info and procedures, verifiable, simple, and easily unpredictable, uncertain, changing. Then the conventional paper gave an overview of main reuse initiatives in the cycle, starting with code and design and style, and then dealing with specification and requirements capture, and finally covering up domain evaluation and modeling.
Two varieties of reuse-based expansion were reviewed, i. electronic. development-for-reuse, taking pictures the construction of reuse collection, and composed of artefact id, generalisation, category and storage; and the second, development-by-reuse, taking pictures the construction of a new software product with the aid of reuse library, and such as tasks of searching for reusable artefacts, all their understanding, edition to new requirements, and their integration into a new system. The levels of pluie processing consist of their research, organisation and synthesis. Finally the newspaper analyses the benefits and the perceived disadvantages of software reusability, concentrating in particular for the myths and misconceptions held by programmers and their managers.
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