Lifespan Advancement, Oppositional Rebellious Disorder, Category, Asperger Affliction

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Schizophrenia Psychosis and Life-span D

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Schizophrenia and Psychosis and Life-span Development

Schizophrenia and Psychosis Matrix

Disorder

Major DSM-IV-TR Categories

Classifications

Subclassifications

Schizophrenia and Psychosis

Symptoms

Positive (Type I): represent excesses or distortions from usual functioning

Delusions

Bizarre

Nonbizarre

Hallucinations

Auditory

Visual

Disorganized Speech

Loose Association

Neologisms

Clang Interactions

Echolalia/Echopraxia

Expression Salad

Largely disorganized patterns

Catatonic: motoric

Waxy Overall flexibility

Negative (Type II): the absence of performing

Apathy

Efficient Flattening

Revulsion

Anhedonia

Avolition

Poor Attentiveness

Poverty of speech

Alogia

Schizophrenia and Psychosis

Analysis Types

Paranoid

Delusions and Hallucinations

Messy

Disorganized presentation

Disorganized tendencies

Withdrawal

Affective flattening

Catatonic

Grossly messy behavior

Disorganized speech

Catatonic

Echolalia/Echopraxia

Undifferentiated

Active symptoms that do not fit other classification types

Recurring

No Type I symptoms but some negative symptoms

Schizoaffective Disorder

Bipolar Type

Indications of mood disorder and schizophrenia

Depressive Type

Brief psychotic disorder

Type I Symptoms

Last less than one month

Delusional disorder

Type I Symptoms

Delusions

Nonbizarre

Shared delusional disorder

Type I

Shared delusions

Life-span Development Matrix

Major DSM-IV-TR Categories

Categories

Infancy/Childhood/Adolescence

Mental retardation

Gentle, moderate, severe, and profound

Learning disorders

Reading disorder

Mathematics disorder

Disorder of written appearance

Motor skill disorders

Developing coordination disorder

Communication disorders

Expressive terminology disorder

Blended receptive-expressive dialect disorder

Phonological disorder

Stuttering

Pervasive developing disorders

Autistic disorder

Rett’s disorder

Years as a child disintegrative disorder

Asperger’s disorder

Attention deficit and disruptive behavior disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Conduct disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder

Feeding deficit and disruptive behavior disorder

Pica (eating nonfood substances)

Rumination disorder (regurgitation)

Tic disorders

Tourette’s disorder

Chronic motor unit or vocal tic disorder

Transient espasmo disorder

Reduction disorders

Encopresis (defecating in inappropriate places)

Enuresis (urinating in improper places)

Different disorders

Separation anxiety disorder

Picky mutism

Reactive attachment disorder

Stereotypic motion disorder

Senior years

Delirium/Dementia/Amnestic Disorders

Alzheimer’s

(Hansell Damour, 2008, 503-504)

Schizophrenia and Psychosis, and Life expectancy Development:

Natural, Emotional, Intellectual and Behavioral Components

Introduction

Schizophrenia is known as a sever mental illness linked to a wide spectrum of emotional, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. While commonly defined simply by its main symptoms of psychosis, the large degree of variance and related disorders include led many researchers to relate to the disorder not by a single classification but rather while the schizophrenic spectrum of disorders (Hansell Damour, 2008, 468). The estimated lifetime prevalence in the disorder in the general inhabitants is approximately 1%. The disorder is also probably the most difficult to treat, with less than half of people clinically determined to have schizophrenia exhibiting significant medical improvements after five years of treatment (Maki et al., 2005). Lifespan development, or developmental mindset, is the analyze of age-related psychological disorders. In particular, it examines the disorders that develop early in a person’s childhood and adolescence and traces their very own development in adulthood. The disorders linked to childhood and adolescence, which include schizophrenia and psychosis, every has exceptional biological, psychological, cognitive and behavioral parts.

Biological Pieces

Schizophrenia shows a high level of heritability. Research have shown that family relatives possess a substantially higher risk of developing the disorder than the general population (Tsuang, 2001). The risk of developing schizophrenia in family members boosts with the amount of biological relatedness to the affected person. “Greater hazards are linked to higher degrees of shared genes” (Tsuang, 2001, 18). Close relatives generally share regarding 50% of their genes and possess a risk of about 9%, compared to the 1% risk of the typical population. Many compelling data for the genetic linkage are monozygotic twins who also show a risk close to 50%. When these research shows a innate connection, they also demonstrate that there is a significant environmental influence around the disease. In particular, for monozygotic twins, who also share fully of their genetics, the risk of growing schizophrenia is only 50%. Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder both clinically and genetically. The disorder provides a wide spectrum of related disorders and a varying expression of symptomatology. Genetic studies write off the idea that schizophrenia springs coming from a single gene. Instead, the majority of researchers think that a multi-factorial polygenic style best explains the innate composition in the disorder (Tsuang, 2008, 19).

The biological components of lifespan development disorders are highly varying as some happen to be directly associated with a single gene while others show a more indeterminate level of gift of money. Mental retardation, for example , one of the fundamental developmental disorders, is most frequently brought on by Down Syndrome, which has the characteristic trisomy 21 (Hansell Damour, 08, 506). At the same time, learning disorders are less well understood. During your stay on island is a obvious biological component and familial inheritance from the disorder, the actual genetic composition is uncertain (Hansell Damour, 2001, 509).

Emotional Elements

The psychological components of schizophrenia and psychosis are typically categorized under negative symptoms, or the ones that are lacking or functionally deficient. Studies have especially identified psychological expression the two facially and vocally because deficient in schizophrenic sufferers. “Compared with individuals with out schizophrenia, individuals with schizophrenia display fewer confident and bad facial expressions in response to emotionally evocative film videos, foods, and social interactions” (Kring Moran, 2008, 821). This indicator is referred to as efficient flattening, an adverse Type 2 symptom that refers to the reduction or perhaps absence of usual emotions. This is very common amongst schizophrenic patients, who may appear psychologically blunted, or express feelings inappropriate to the particular scenario (Hansell Damour, 2008, 466). Some patients are even more debilitated and experience avolition, or a deficiency of motivation and anhedonia, an absence of pleasure. Individuals often find it difficult to perform any kind of constructive career.

Given the wide range of life expectancy developmental disorders, the psychological components vary substantially. In grown-ups, “emotional distress” is one of the several major requirements in considering psychopathology and is a major component of adult-related disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimer’s (Hansell Damour, 2008, 500). In children, however , it truly is more difficult to analyze the mental components of disorders because kids and children are less expressive or communicative. Children with learning afflictions have been shown to suffer emotional harm because of the exclusion knowledgeable by their disorders. The inability to develop or find out as proficiently as their peers has been shown to have a negative impact on a child’s emotional stability (Hansell Damour, 2008, 511). Further, autism is one particular lifespan developing disorder that includes a pronounced emotional component. Kids generally absence social or emotional exchange with others and have disadvantaged communication. More over, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in many cases are unable to control the expression with their emotions and in turn are extremely effusive.

Cognitive Components

Cognitive deficiencies and abnormalities are evident in both confident (Type I) and unfavorable (Type II) symptoms of schizophrenia. One of the most incapacitating aspects of the disorder is definitely the persistent delusions and hallucinations experienced simply by patients. The delusions can be bizarre and nonbizarre and involve a shared knowledge. Hallucinations immediately involve intellectual functions because they have both auditory and visual pieces. These hallucinations are very practical and often hinder the patients’ awareness that they are not well and interfere with treatment (Hansell Damour, 2008, 467). Intellectual abilities including verbal fluency, learning, recollection, attention and psychomotor abilities are all lowered in schizophrenia. Patient may well often make loose groups in conversation, create new words, or perhaps ramble non-sensically. Still other folks display symptoms of echolalia (repeating verbatim the text of others) and echopraxia (repeating the gestures of others) (Hansell Damour, 2008, 463). These cognitive insufficiencies may come up from the prevalent feeling among patients with schizophrenia that they can be overwhelmed by simply stimuli.

Life expectancy development disorders that screen special cognitive impairment are mental retardation, learning disorders, Asperger’s disorder, attention deficit over activity disorder, and conduct disorders. Of these disorders, children with learning disorders are particularly cognitive damaged. Children with dyslexia possess difficulties studying, those with dysgraphia have problems with written phrase and in kids with dyscalculia, academic accomplishment in math is greatly below what would be anticipated of the children’s age, cleverness or education. (Hansell Damour, 2008, 509). Conversely, kids with Asperger’s disorder have got substantially increased cognitive function and are capable of process significantly more information compared to the average kid. In adults, cognitive functions generally become reduced at retirement years and are specifically pronounced inside the elderly with senility and Alzheimer’s.

Behavioral Components

The behavioral aspects of schizophrenia and psychosis would be the most quickly observable and thus often used to distinguish between several types of the disorder. Disorganized and catatonic schizophrenia are both specified by extreme disorganized behavior. Patients classified as catatonic display symptoms that “range from intense immobility and unresponsiveness to extreme disappointment, such as purposeless flailing, pacing, or spinning” (Hansell Damour, 2008, 464). Patients during these diagnostic categories also demonstrate symptoms of serious verbal corruption as they find it hard to organize their speech. Catatonic patients generally display muteness, echolalia, and echopraxia along with severe behavioral frustration. Delusions and hallucinations, which can be primarily grouped as weird schizophrenia, also affect the patients’ behaviors, as they are often confident to perform particular actions based upon delusional thoughts or visions. (Hansell Damour, 2008, 467).

In life expectancy development, irregular behavior amounts from serious agitation and physical aggressiveness in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, to noncompliance and unawareness of mental retardation. Conduct disorder and

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