Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, Jung, Eriksons Theory

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I use chosen midlife as my study since it is the period which is the most fascinating and on which a lot of conflicting and ambiguous claims are brought to bear. This might be due to the fact that the middle years consists of too little reliability and an excessive amount of diversity therefore many of the models that I have observed differ as well in the age range given to the mid existence years. To elaborate: While most designs define midlife as commencing at 45 and finishing at 62, a ten-year range is present at the back with some advocates actually considering midlife because beginning in 30 and ending by 75 (Lachman, 2004). Given too the differences in people, amplified by socio-historical and physical elements, individuals are bound to show differences in all their mid – life period. It is that is why possibly that Erickson’s studies sound therefore quaint to many western the ears, particularly since we avoid expect to find the empty nesting syndrome inside our 30s since Erickson mentioned and it absolutely was for this reason that Donald Levinson, an American developing psychologist surviving in the 70s divided the middle years in various ranges.

Finally the midlife encounter differs coming from individual to individual: whilst some keep at this age, other folks nurture their grandchildren, stop working, seek job, marry / bury or perhaps reject all their parents; while others travel off towards the Appalachian Mountain range and live a austere experience. This all leads to different impact on the midlife years rendering theories based on these kinds of years approximate and tough at best.

Two major theories on the middle of life development are those of Erick Erickson and Carl Jung.

Erik Eriksson and Stage Theory

Erickson’s (1963) stage theory posits that each epoch in every area of your life represents 8-10 different phases that individuals get around, either effectively or unsuccessfully, enabling them to transverse to another. Each stage has its own theme, and the theme of mid life is generativity vs . self-absorption or stagnation, where ability to effectively deal with this kind of transition. Central adulthood runs from thirty-five to fifty five or to 66 and is the period where the healthful middle-aged adult absorbs himself in meaningful and imaginative work and her interest focuses, while not exclusively, on her behalf family. Your woman becomes even more assertive and self-directed, which is increasingly motivated to achieve her objective (or ‘life’s mission’).

This is the level, too, of production and accomplishment, the place that the adult looks for to transfer personal values to a future generation, and is also intent on doing so particularly since life’s passage makes him feel its preciousness. A mid-life crisis may possibly occur in this stage, seeing that some could find themselves facing an ’empty nest’ syndrome with aged parents to protect. Major life changes generally occur in this stage and if the individual is unable to navigate these people, he may discover himself stagnating and becoming engage. Significant human relationships become the focal point, before the adult transfers to the next stage: late adulthood.

Generativity involves a focus on nurturing and leading the coming era, whether familiar or extra-familial, and on sociable contributions by means of talent and time. In respect to Erickson (1963), mental well being at this stage of lifestyle consists inside the ability to transfer one’s achievements and life-leanings to others.

Interpersonal theorists who have adapted and modified Erickson’s theory of middle-age, such as mid-life problems, include McAdams (2001) who have elaborated about generativity, Levinson et approach. (1978) whom demarcated stage theory as consisting of multiple transitions throughout adulthood, and Vaillant and Milofsky (1987) who classified midlife in three phases rather than the 1 posited simply by Erickson. Eriksson posited that life is a procedure of preparation for the center stage of adulthood and successful change through earlier stages enables the individual to look for contentment and satisfaction for her concluding phase. Having come to the end of a well-conducted and effectively- performed life, the individual can greet death with unconcern.

Additional adults, however , who may have stagnated at a number of stages, may reach all their culminating period with stress and dissatisfaction feeling sorrow and not able to attain closure. It is to this kind of end, consequently , that Eriksson, first of all stage psychologists, emphasized the importance of successfully completing each stage of lifestyle before and, in order, to passage through the next also to him the center years had been the most important regions of life for the reason that they mediated the beginning sometime later it was years and, if transitioned effectively, might enable the person to effectively ‘commute’ to the end.

Eriksson’s model must be seen in the context of his time and place. Much will not relevant to Western (or, certainly global circumstances today) and observation that individuals, becoming diverse and heterogeneous, may not be ‘shunted’ in to any particular mould.

Jung’s midlife theory

Jung’s (1971) midlife theory, on the other hand, typically represented his general beliefs in that he saw middle age representing individuation or perhaps integration from the feminine (anima) with the assertive (animus) aspects of the psyche. Men, put simply, become more girly, whilst girls, according to Jung (1971), become more manly. Transition to midlife is difficult, and commonly to Erickson, Jung (1971) claims that failing to deal with this kind of stage could cause some problems later on. Little evidence facilitates Jung’s (1971) individuation (male/female) contention, though it is possible that whilst classic sex attributes stay, supplementation of reverse sex qualities may be attained.

Jung promises that we have to let go of many of the values that shaped the first element of our life and look profound into each of our unconscious to be able to successfully find their way the midlife crisis and beyond. In accordance with Erickson, he as well sees the midlife years as critical to shaping the rest of one’s existence. In fact , they could be the most crucial a lot of all. On the toehr side, Jung may differ from Eriksson in his magical and strengthen that centers on the unconscious, whilst Erickson is carefully pragmatic and rational.

Confronting the subconscious, according to Jung, is definitely obtained by simply paying heed to our dreams and by gripping, riveting ourselves in creative actions such as composing and art work. Messages with the unconscious, when ever allowed and closely believed, should then simply be soaked up into the mindful way of life to be able to better influence the responsibility of your midlife years and further than.

Jung him self was practitioner of his midlife theory as referred to in his autobiography, “Memories, Dreams, reflections (1961) where he identified some of the major contributions that occurred and that he performed in the middle years and further than as a result of fine tuning in to his unconsciousness.

Jung’s midlife problems has evolved in the popular, but erroneous conceiving of the indefatigable ‘midlife crisis’ that converts otherwise rational beings into potentially reasonless humans, when more varied cohorts were studied, it was found that just approximately 26% of researched participants above age forty five actually knowledgeable some sort of midlife problems (Wethingon ain al., 2004). Many, on the other hand, report peak functioning and experiences (Lachman, 2004). It really is more likely that peak and crisis signify extreme positions commonly experienced by people in their central years, with all the norm over the continuum suffering from neither peak nor turmoil. Alternately, peak and catastrophe may basically characterize different situations knowledgeable by each person according to particular persona and particular situation: although some experience midlife because crisis, for others it may be liberation and the top of their lives. (And the crisis could possibly be a top as per Erickson’s (1963) motives when he put forward that crisis is necessary for development and growth. ) In another manner, these kinds of contradictory viewpoints may be validated by positing that whilst one or more aspects of life look like peak working, other areas of life may be undergoing a crisis.

Jung’s model, just as Erickson’s model, has to be seen within the context of his time and place. Jung, for instance, posited that we shed our

Man Physiology, Parent Abuse, Sex Dysfunction, Weak Population

Research from Term Paper:


Human Development

Human being Development – the Elderly

The objective of this daily news is to look at human expansion from the perspective of sociocultural concepts about the elderly as well as from the health-related provider’s look at and heatlh care providers delivery inside the elderly population.

Generally, with regards to the elderly as well as the cognitive the aging process which is knowledgeable one presumes that is simply a time of decline inside the areas of recollection, linguistics and processes of attention in addition to the problem-solving abilities. The decrease is presumed, and studies support the concept as well, that the cognitive decrease begins sometime during the a lot of the person having reached the age of sixty. Nevertheless , according to Schaie, 93, while it applies that a some of the individuals mental abilities knowledge declines that a lot of cognitive capabilities experience only small declines. However , this kind of small declines are sure to take place.

The Aging Process:

One particular hypothesis that has been purported is the fact some of the diminishes experienced during the aging process might not be due to “regression” but rather may be attributed to “suboptimal cognitive” functioning in the elderly person. That the the aging process cognitive capabilities seemingly experience a destructuring process that appears with childlike thinking is the basis for the regression theory. Within this theory is the idea that “structures that support the reasoning mechanisms have been destroyed” and the regression knowledgeable is long lasting and “irreversible. ” (Fontaine, 2000)

Another hypothesis declares that the declines observed in the cognitive talents of the maturing is in the individual’s use of just part of the intellectual resources.

The Care Provider’s Consideration in Care for the Elderly Population:

You will discover different resources define the reservoirs of property and capabilities that actually or perhaps potentially help coping and adaptation procedures according to Pearlin Schooler, 1978. 1st there are personal resources, second of all socioeconomic methods and finally emotional resources. Personal resources give a useful framework for explaining variation of adjustment to main tasks and transitions through the life span (George, 1980; Jerusalem, 1993; Lowenthal, Thurnher Chiriboga, 1975) Socioeconomic resources are objective resources that are highly visible and sanctioned simply by society and are usually associated with one’s education, occupation and income. (Zemach 1999). They are powerful determinants of interpersonal class or perhaps statifications and differentially affect the individuals accessibility to vital factors such as expertise, beneficial your life conditions, protective environment, and health care services (Feinstein, 1993)

It is generally agreed that health is known as a personal claims that does not send merely to absence of disease but also to objective and subjective aspects of physical and mental well-being. (Stone, 1979) With this thought at heart, the health proper care provider need to take many aspects of care for the elderly into mind and not just that which is usually physically relevant in the proper care of the elderly.

Older people Population is Growing:

The number and percentage of elderly or perhaps older adults in the United States has more than tripled since 1990 and the growth of the population which have been elderly can be not expected to slow in the near future. The U. S. census of 2000 shows that thirty five million people in the country will be the age of 65 years or perhaps older and life expectancy is around 80 years old on the usual demonstrated very well by the fact that at least 9. two million U. S. persons are age 70 or more mature. The elderly human population is facing with increased age the possibility of serious and chronic illnesses. Sensory, functional and cognitive illnesses are comprehensive I these types of possible health issues. The growth inside the elderly populace signals new demands intended for health care providers.

Dementia, incontinence, immobility as well as sex dysfunction had been “accepted” as the norm in the aging process. Yet , it is lucky that getting through study have highlight the aging process and this has led to “appropriate, age-specific care measures staying developed which is ongoing. (Elipoulos, 1999) Chronic health issues is suffered by practically 90% of elderly individuals with many struggling chronic health issues. Heart disease, heart stroke and cancers are considered to be the leading causes for loss of life among the seniors population. Decrease in physical and neural function can be accredited intended for the overenthusiastic injuries which have been predominant among the list of elderly and according to Eliopoulos, 1999, falls account for the most common reason behind fatal injurys for he elderly inhabitants.

The Joint Commission in Accreditation of Healthcare Businesses (JCAHO) require that staff be particularly competent inside the provision of health care for the patient groups of the elderly. The actual set of best practice rules for seniors requires knowledge in the area of analysis for right interpretation of the complexities which exist. The basic parts of competency necessary for providing healthcare to the older are inclusive of the physiology of maturing, medication operations, pain administration, prevention of pressure ulcers, wound management, elder abuse as well as safety precautions. In order to provide better care for the elderly, Wessling 2002, relates the medical-surgical health professional must be familiar with effects of aging so that when ever something varies from the usual the company knows what to do. According to The Sachs Group, 99, elderly individuals account for 47% of inpatient care for healthcare providers.

Older people Individual’s Personal Social Network:

Because individuals reach the age that is certainly termed elderly, the need for a construction of any personal social network becomes obvious. According to a study written by Sluzki, 2000:

“Our personal social network can be stable although evolving relational fabric constituted by (a) family members (b) friends and acquaintances (c) work and study links, and (d) relations that evolve out of our involvement informal and information agencies – sociable, religious, personal, vocational, health-related, et cetera. This social cocoon constitutes a crucial repository of your identity, our history, and our perception of fulfillment and satisfaction with your life. “

Old age is what describes the stage when an individual has reached an advanced chronological age and is also a reality of biological scientific research. According to Sluzki, senior years is defined by:

(a) The traditions: Different communautaire define a person as old by different chronologial ages;

(b) By the changing of sense of balance between the body decay as well as the advancement of geriatric remedies people remain physically thus emotionally in shape at a later age group as precautionary and beneficial medicine finds new ways of delaying the unavoidable physical decay along with keeping older people healthy.

(c) By genetic lottery – some families display years of trend toward early death

You will discover traits frequently shared by individuals of advanced grow older. The advanced aged is usually characterized by sensory acuity being reduced as well as a reduction in electric motor agility. Addititionally there is decline in cognitive capabilities that are in actuality more regarding a steady slide instead of a designated drop inside the functions. Too there is a changing in the individual’s responsibility within the familial sphere in that since the old proverb states, “The parents becomes the child and the child turns into the parent. “

Break down of Sociable Skills and the Social Network:

Socially the elderly person experience within a progressive breakdown in the skills necessary for social discussion as well as cultural bonds. This can be experienced in the following ways:

(a) Death of associates of social network

(b) Increased difficulty in the cabability to interact or perhaps attend to interpersonal tasks

(c) Decreased ability in making fresh social contacts and preserving those previously established

This may lead to a reduction in the substance and opportunity for cultural interaction. In accordance to Lansford, Sheriman Antonucci, 1998, “This emptiness is at many cases counterbalanced by the preservation and sometimes even amplification, rise of choose friendships. inch

Decreased Autonomy in the Elderly:

The elderly person also deals with a reduction in terms of socioeconomic power due to the general lessening of the salary among older individuals. However are conditions, the norm is that the income individuals of advanced age will probably be substantially less than the cash flow of their successful working years. This decrease in income is usually complicated with a rise in the healthcare costs that are generally associated with advanced age. Likewise, other costs in the aspects of home assistance care for food preparation, cleaning, laundry and other maintenance needs can be decreased due to the individuals decreased capacity for overall performance of these tasks for themselves. This kind of decrease in autonomy is drive upon the elderly individual and leave many feeling that they will be a burden to their family and caretakers.

The general response upon realizing the need for an assistance network causes individuals to act in response in a several ways. The first response is for the individual to move towards the town where their children live. This can be confident in many ways. However , this situation may also be very difficult for the who, in asserting their autonomy, deals with to blend up older angst inside the family over issues extended past. This within itself is the reason that many people opt for the older community configurations that are superb for those not yet ready for the entire time care of a medical facility.

Adverse Societal Take care of the Elderly

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