Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh 1 . Introduction: BANGLADESH IS QUITE FULL OF ETHNIC TRADITION. THERE ARE ABOUT THIRTY-FIVE CULTURAL COMMUNITIES LIVING IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. THE MAJOR CULTURAL COMMUNITIES HAPPEN TO BE CHAKMA, MURMA, GARO, SANTAL, HAJONG, TIPRA, KHASI, MURANG, SHENDHU, PANKO ETC . THEY WILL STRUGGLE TO PRESERVE THEIR LIFE STYLE, CULTURE AND PROTECT SPECIFIC RELIGIOUS MORALS FROM THE INFLUENCE OF THE DOMINANT CULTURE AND RELIGIONS. INSIDE THE NORTH AND NORTHWESTERN SEATBELT OF BANGLADESH A NUMBER OF CULTURAL COMMUNITIES LIVE WHO STILL HAVE TO HAVE DIFFICULTY HARD TO SUSTAIN THEIR VERY OWN ORIGINAL TRADITION AND CLASSIC HERITAGE.

THE ADIVASIS IN THIS AREA COMPRISES OF MANY GROUPS SANTAL, ORAON, MUNDA, MAHALI, MAHATO, MALPAHARA ETC . AMONG THE ETHNIC PEOPLE IN THE NORTH AND NORTHWESTERN SEATBELT OF BANGLADESH SANTALS HAPPEN TO BE LARGEST IN NUMBER. NEVERTHELESS THERE IS NO CORRECT AND DEPENDABLE STATISTICS RELATING TO THEIR ACTUAL POPULATION. THERE IS ALSO A GREAT BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE STANDARD AND INFORMAL FIGURES AND ESTIMATES. IN LINE WITH THE GOVERNMENT CENSUS OF 1991, THE ADIVASI POPULATION WAS ESTIMATED 3, 14, 337 IN 18 ADMINISTRATIVE DISTRICT OF THE RAJSHAHI DIVISION.

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BUT SINCE CLAIMED BY SIMPLY AN LOCAL COMMUNITY INNOVATOR, BADLA ORAON OF DINAJPUR ADIVASI SENIOR HIGH, THE NUMBER OF NATIVE PEOPLE IN RAJSHAI SECTION WAS 3, 222, 000 WAY BACK IN 1984. A SURVEY REPORT UNCOVERS THAT THE TOTAL POPULATION OF SANTAL IS 143932 IN DINAJPUR, RAJSHAHI, BOGRA, PABNA AND SOME OTHER LOCATIONS OF BANGLADESH. ACCORDING TO THE SOME OTHER SOURCES, THE TOTAL QUANTITY OF SANTALS ARE MUCH HIGHER THAN ESTIMATED. MOST OF THE COLLEGE STUDENTS ALSO WONDERED THE GENUINENESS OF THE STATISTICAL DATA. INSIDE THEIR OPINION, THE CENSUS TAKES LANGUAGE WHILE THE BASIS PERTAINING TO IDENTIFYING ANYBODY AS FRENCH OR LOCAL.

THEY HAVE LIKEWISE ALLEGED WHICH THE EXISTING PLAN IS TO SHOW THE NUMBER LOWER THAN THE ACTUAL AMOUNT. 2 | P a g e. Ethnic Number of Bangladesh 2 . Historical Qualifications of the Santals SINCE HOW LONG THE SANTALS LANDED IN THE TERRITORY OF PRESENT BANGLADESH, IS NOT REALLY PRECISELY NOTED. SOME BELIEVE THAT THE KHERWARS REACHED THE LAND OF BENGAL SOON AFTER THE INITIALLY CLASHES WITH THE INVADING ARYAN TRIBES (2500 B. C. ). COLLECTIVELY PROBABILITY THE SANTALS LANDED IN BANGLADESH WITH THEIR REAL ETHNIC PERSONALITY, NOT FOLLOWING 1000 B. C. IT CAN BE PROBABLE THAT THE SANTALS EXISTING THROUGHOUT BENGAL AT THE TIME OF THE MUSLIM ATTACK OF THIS LOCATION DURING THE LAST YEARS OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY OR PERHAPS AT THE BEGINNING OF 13TH CENTURY. INSIDE THE WORDS OF FR.

LUIZI PUSSETTO: THE SANTALS RETIRED PROGRESSIVELY TOWARD MORE PEACEFUL REGIONS OR PERHAPS WHERE IT ABSOLUTELY WAS MORE EASY TO PROTECT [THEMSELVES] FROM THE INVADERS IN AFTER TIMES, TOGETHER WITH THE HISTORIC SANTAL REVOLUTION IN 1855 UNDER THE BRITISH COLONIAL RULE IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT, WHEN 30, 000 THOUSAND SANTALS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE RECENTLY BEEN KILLED, IT CAN BE BEYOND ANY DOUBT THAT NUMEROUS OF THE SANTALS WERE DISPERSED INTO ISOLATED LANDS AND GEOGRAPHICALLY ISOLATED TERRITORIES. SOME OF THEM EVEN CROSSED THE WATER GANGES AND END UP IN THE EAST, FAULT PRESENT BANGLADESH.

MANY FEEL THAT THE EARLY SANTALS CAME TO NORTH BENGAL IN SEARCH FOR TASK OPPORTUNITIES, IN PARTICULAR WHEN THE RAILWAY TRACKS WERE UNDER CONSTRUCTION during the British rule in the second half of the 19th 100 years. This may be a primary reason THAT MOST SANTALS IN BANGLADESH ARE FOUND BUYING BOTH SIDES OF THE RAILWAY LINES FROM NORTH TO SOUTHERN REGION. 2 . 1 THE IDENTITY SANTAL: REGARDING THE NAME SANTAL, OPINIONS CHANGE AMONG THE SCHOLARS. FOR SKREFSRUD, THE IDENTITY SANTAL IS ACTUALLY A CORRUPTION OF SAONTAR, AND WAS ADOPTED BY THE TRIBE AFTER ALL THEIR SOJOURN FOR A NUMBER OF GENERATIONS IN THE AREA AROUND SAONT IN MIDNAPUR.

W. N. OLDHAM OPINED THAT SANTAL IS AN ABBREVIATION OF SAMANTAWALA, CONTAINING ITS ETYMOLOGY FROM SANSKRIT SAMANTA, AN ADDITIONAL NAME DIRECTED AT THE COUNTRY AROUND SAONT. O’MALLEY IS OF THE OPINION THAT SANTAL IS AN ENGLISH TYPE ADOPTED FROM HINDI WHICH USUALLY CORRESPONDS WHILE USING FORM SAOTAL USED BY THE BENGALI SPEAKING PEOPLE. THE MAJORITY OF ANTHROPOLOGISTS ACKNOWLEDGE THAT SANTAL IS A TERM GIVEN TO THIS KIND OF TRIBE SIMPLY BY NON-SANTALS.

YET , SANTALS WANT TO CALL THEMSELVES HOR THAT MEANS HUMAN BEING OR PERSON. TO GET THE SANTALS THE CONCEPT HOR BEARS A RICH SIGNIFICANCE TO SUGGEST A PERSON WITH FEATURES OF INTELLIGENCE, OF KNOWLEDGE, OF WISDOM; THAT THEY REFER THEMSELVES AS A TRIBE WITH DIGNITY AND COMPLETE HUMAN POTENTIALITY. THE SANTALS ARE PROUD OF THEIR IDENTIFICATION THAT DESCRIBES THE CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIFICATION AND UNIQUENESS AS A GROUP.

3 | S a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh 2 . a couple of ORIGIN, CONTEST, AND DIALECT: AS TO THE ORIGIN OF THE SANTALS, VERY LITTLE IS FAMOUS FOR CERTAIN. THE SANTALS DO NOT RECORDED HISTORY. LIKE DIFFERENT ANCIENT SOCIETIES, SANTALS HAVE GOT TRIED TO CHECK OUT THE TRICKS OF CREATION, HISTORY AND LIFESTYLE BY MEANS OF MISGUIDED BELIEFS AND STORIES. FOLLOWING THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA, A LOT OF AUTHORS CLASSIFY SANTALS WHILE PRE-DRAVIDIAN AND OTHERS AS PROTO-AUSTROLOIDS; AND OTHERS WHILE ABORIGINALS IN THE NORTHWEST.

HENCE, THE VIEWS IN THIS RESPECT ARE INCREDIBLY DISCORDANT. THE SANTALS CARRY OUT HAVE THEIR INDIVIDUAL MYTHOLOGY OF CREATION AND MANY BELIEVE THAT EACH OF THEM HAVE COME BY PILCU HARAM AND PILCU BUDHI, WHICH IS LIKE HERSKER AND EVE IN THE SCRIPTURES. SANTALI IS A MOTHER TONGUE USED BY THE SANTALS. IT IS A MUNDA LANGUAGE FROM THE KHERWAR GROUP THAT BELONGS TO THE MUNDA-MON-KHMER OR AUSTRO-ASIATIC’ SUB-FAMILY. BUT YOU WILL FIND OTHER DIVERSE OPINIONS ABOUT THIS TOO.

IN ACCORDANCE TO In. PRASAD, SANTALI IS THE MOST WEALTHY DIALECT AMONG ALL THE TRIBE DIALECTS OF BIHAR. 2 . a few GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: IN BANGLADESH, THE SANTALS ARE LOCATED MOSTLY IN NORTH BENGAL (NORTHERN COMPONENT TO BANGLADESH) PARTICULARLY IN THE THEN INCREASED DISTRICTS OF DINAJPUR, RANGPUR, BOGRA, AND RAJSHAHI. BASED ON THE CENSUS OF 1881, THE SANTALS LEAD PRESENT IN THE DISTRICT OF KHULNA, PABNA AND CHITTAGONG IN THE TO THE SOUTH.

MANY ADMIT THE SANTALS, WHO ARE IN SYLHET, ARE THE KINDS WHO MIGRATED FROM THE SCHISME MENTIONED ABOVE AND CAME BELOW MAINLY TO WORK IN THE TEA GARDENS AS LABORERS. IN SHORT, THE SANTALS OF BANGLADESH HAPPEN TO BE ALMOST ALL CREATED FROM THOSE EMIGRATED FROM THE SANTAL PARGANA IN INDIA CERTAINLY NOTHING DISTINGUISHES THEM FROM THOSE WHO ARE STILL LIVING THERE, WHILE USING EXCEPTION, PROBABLY OF THE USE OF BANGLA WORDS THAT ARE SANTALIZED. IN RECENT TIMES A NUMBER OF THE BANGLADESHI SANTALS ALSO BEGAN GOING ABROAD TAKING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES.

4 | P a g e Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh 3. THE WORLDVIEW THE SANTALS ARE BASIC AND UNSOPHISTICATED PEOPLE. LIKE ANY OTHER PEOPLE, THE SANTALS ARE SUFFERING FROM THEIR OWN WORLDVIEW, A SYSTEM SUITABLE FOR DEAL WITH THE STANDARD PROBLEMS OF LIFE AS WELL AS ITS MEANING. THEY MAY HAVE PERCEIVED THE ENIGMA AS WELL AS THE BASIC DICHOTOMY OF INDIVIDUAL EXISTENCELIFE AND DEATH, GOOD AND EVIL FROM THEIR OWN PERSPECTIVE.

TO GET THE SANTALS, LIFE, HEALTH, WEALTH, SUCCESS, HAPPINESS, TRIBE SOLIDARITY, FAITH BASED BELIEF, MORES, ETC ., ARE GOOD; AND DEATH, HEALTH ISSUES, POVERTY, BAD LUCK, INJURY AND SO FORTH ARE EVIL. THEIR FAITH BASED EXPERIENCES IS DEFINITELY MEDIATED THROUGH THEIR TRADITION AND ARE EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF SIGNS, METAPHORS, FANTASY, LEGENDS, FOLKLORE, SONGS, CONSPIRACY, RITUALS AND SO FORTH. THE Santals consider Th kur Jiu? (Life Giver) or Cando Baba (Sun Father) or perhaps Marang BURU (GREAT MOUNTAIN) AS THE ORIGINAL SOURCE OF ALL GOOD; WHILE IT IS A EVIL EYE, THE evil mouth as well as the b ric’ bonga? or malevolent mood who trigger harms in human EXISTENCE.

THEREFORE , WHEN ACKNOWLEDGING THE SUPREME STAYING, THEY ALSO PROPITIATE THE BONGA IN AN ATTEMPT TO FIX THE PROBLEMS OF SUFFERING, SICKNESS, AND OTHER PROBLEMS. ALL THESE FREQUENTLY LEAD THEM TO SUPERSTITIOUS BELIEFS AND PROVIDE RISE TO PROMINENCE WITH THE FEAR OF THE BONGA. TO GET THE SANTALS EVERY INFANT CHILD COMING FROM THE INVISIBLE AND SHADOWY GLOBE NEEDS TO BE PURIFIED, IDENTIFIED AND INTRODUCED TO THE SANTAL CULTURE.

MUCH OF THESE KINDS OF REALITIES ARE EXPRESSED THROUGH THE RITUAL EVENTS PERFORMED AFTER HAVING A CHILD IS born. The routine of the janam ch ti r? (birth purification and name-giving ritual) is ONE EXAMPLE WHERE THESE TYPES OF ASPECTS WILL BE ENACTED THROUGH BATHING, SAVING THE HEAD FROM THE BABY, DIVINING OF ARWA RICE (UNBOILED RICE) GRAINS AND PLEASING OF THE BABY BY THE COMMUNITY. THE DEATH PURIFICATION EVENTS LIKE MEMORIAL RITES OF BHANDAN, OR PERHAPS MORA KARAM (AFTER-DEATH CELEBRATION) PROVIDE FURTHER DETAILS OF THE SANTAL-BELIEF SYSTEM THAT THE DEAD PERSON DATES BACK TO THE SAME SPIRIT-WORLD OF LIFE COMING FROM WHERE HE/.

SHE HAD COME AS CHILD AND REMAINS DEFILED AND DEFILING, FOR WHICH REASON NOT MERELY THE FAMILY THAT NEEDS REFINEMENT, BUT THE VERY RETURN FROM THE DECEASED PERSON TO ITS ORIGINAL POINT OUT OR SHADOWY-WORLD IS ALREADY DEFILING BECAUSE IT IS A TRIBELESS-STATE, CONDEMNED AND GUILTY STATE AND BECAUSE IT HAS BEEN MADE FOR THE PUNISHMENT OF THE SINS OF AVARICE AND PRIDE. HENCE, THE DECEASED PERSON NEEDS TO BE BROUGHT BACK 5 |P a g e. Cultural Group Of Bangladesh SPIRITUALLY TO HIS/HER OWN FAMILY AND IS SET UP AS AN INVISIBLE MEMBER WHILE HAPRAM (ANCESTOR). THE DECEASED, ALTHOUGH HIDDEN, REMAIN AN EVERLASTING MEMBER OF THE FAMILY AND ARE REMEMBERED AND RESPECTED DURING ALMOST ALL THEIR FAMILY OCCASIONS.

THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT WHEN [A] MAN BECOMES PROPERLY FREE FROM ALL GREED AND PRIDE THIS STATE WILL PROBABLY BE REMOVED WHICH WILL BE THE NEW CREATION, WHICH IN CHRISTIANITY COULD POSSIBLY BE COMPARED WITH YOUR SALVATION. FOR THE SANTALS, THERE IS NO OBVIOUS DISTINCTION INVOLVING THE SACRED AS WELL AS THE PROFANE, FAITH BASED AND nonreligious, SPIRITUAL AND THE MATERIAL ASPECTS OF LIFE. ANIMALS AND THE MATERIALS WORLD HAVE REACHED THE REMOVAL OF HUMAN BEINGS FOR THEIR SELF-PRESERVATION AND HEALTH. MOREOVER, SANTAL-LIFE IS STRONGLY RELATED TO CHARACTERISTICS AND TO THE ENTIRE OF CREATION. LAND AND FOREST CONTINUE TO BE UNITED WITH SANTAL-IDENTITY AND THEREFORE ARE VERY MUCH REFLECTED IN THEIR LIVES, LOVE, BEAUTIFULLY CONSTRUCTED WORDING, SONGS, PARTY AND MUSIC.

THE SANTALS, FOR EXAMPLE , ADDRESSES TO THE SUPREME BEING AS CANDO HUMOR (SUN FATHER) AND THE ACTORS TOO WILL VARY NAMES. IN ACCORDANCE TO ARCHER, ALTHOUGH AREAS, HOUSES, MALES AND FEMALES SEEM TO AMOUNT TO A SANTAL VILLAGE, SANTALS REGARD ALL OF THEM AS FOR THE MOST PART A PORTION OF THEIR TOTAL WORLD. 6 | P a g e Ethnic Number of Bangladesh 5. THE SANTALS IN THEIR SOCIO-CULTURAL REALITIES 4. 1 THE SANTAL-VILLAGE: THE SANTAL VILLAGE IS A ROUTINE OF SANTAL LIVING IN FACT IT IS THE MOST CLASSIC AND ANCIENT INSTITUTION, WHICH WILL CRYSTALLIZES THE COMPLETE SYSTEM OF SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND RITUAL CONSTRUCTIONS. IT COMES IN EXISTENCE THROUGHOUT THE SPECIAL DISPENSATION OF THE BONGA AND IS SANCTIFIED BY THEIR BENEFITS.

THE PRESENCE OF DIVERSE CLANS IN A VILLAGE ILLUSTRATES THE BEAUTY OF A RESIDENTIAL AREA LIVING AND OBVIOUSLY THE DEMOCRATIC CHARACTER WITH THE VILLAGE GOVERNMENT ITSELF IS A SIGN OF INCREDIBLE RICHNESS OF THE SANTAL SOCIETAL COPING AND LIVING. A SANTAL VILLAGE IS USUALLY DEMARCATED WITH AN IMPLIED BOUNDARY IN ORDER THAT IT MAY REMAIN FREE FROM OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE OF EVIL SPIRITS. THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT QUARRELS AMONG PEOPLE AND TEAMS IN THE TOWN, NATURAL DISASTERS, SICKNESS, EPIDEMICS, ETC ., RESULT FROM LACK OF BALANCE BETWEEN THE PUSHES OF GOOD AND EVIL. four. 2 INTERPERSONAL STRUCTURE OF SANTAL VILLAGE: THE PRIMARY FEATURE OF EVERY SANTAL VILLAGE IS DEFINITELY THE MANJHI COUNCIL OR THE TOWN COUNCIL WENT BY A MANJHI (HEADMAN).

THE VILLAGE AUTHORITIES IS THE REP BODY FROM THE COMMUNITY COMPOSED OF SEVEN REPRESENTATIVES, NAMELY: MANJHI, PARANIK (A DEPUTY HEADMAN), JOG MANJHI (AN OVERSEER OF THE TOWN ON ETHICAL ISSUES), TROT PARANIK (ASSISTANT TO WALK MANJHI), GODET’ (A MESSENGER), NAEKE (A village priest), and his assistant is Kud m Naeke?. These REPRESENTATIVES IN FACT WOULD BE THE SERVANTS, NOT REALLY THE PROFESSIONALS OF THE village and their part is solely functional. The M njhi? remains because the overall INNOVATOR OF THE TOWN COUNCIL AND PRESIDES ABOVE THE VILLAGE APPOINTMENT BUT WITH THE ACCEPTED RULE THAT NO ONE OVERRULES A SINGLE ELSE.

THE FUNCTIONS IN THE COUNCIL ON THE OTHER HAND, ARE FLATLY DIVIDED AMONG THE LIST OF MEMBERS IN ORDER TO AVOID ANY OVERLAPPING. THE COUNCIL MEMBERS EXECUTE THEIR FUNCTIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THEIR VERY OWN TRIBAL CUSTOMS AND PRACTICES. THE ROUTINE OF THE TOWN GOVERNANCE IN THE SANTALS IS MOSTLY DEMOCRATIC IN CHARACTER SIMILAR TO OTHER DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTION. HOWEVER IN PRESENT TIME, WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF THE GOVERNMENT-SPONSORED UNION PARISAD (LOCAL MANAGEMENT COUNCIL) THE SOCIAL CONTROL OF THE TRADITIONAL meters njhi? council of the Santals is mostly undermined.

7 | P a g elizabeth Ethnic Band of Bangladesh FOLLOWING PATRIARCHAL ROUTINE, THE MANJHI (LEADER) FROM THE VILLAGE INTENDED FOR THE SANTALS, IS ALWAYS A MALE. THE TITLE OF THE MANJHI IS GENERALLY HEREDITARY AND IT IS TRANSFERRED PATRILINEALLY. NOW-A-DAYS, THE MALE USERS OF THE COMMUNITY MAY CHOOSE OR EVEN CHOOSE THEIR OWN HEADMAN UPON PREVALENT CONSENSUS.

THE DEFINITION OF OF WORKPLACE IS INDEFINITE BUT CAN BE ALTERED SIMPLY BY GENERAL CONTRACT ACCORDING TO THE NEED. ALTHOUGH THE BUSINESS OFFICE OF THE HEADMAN IS VOLUNTARY AND HONORARY IN NATURE, THE PEOPLE OF THE MANJHI COUNCIL ARE IN CHARGE OF TO THE COMMUNITY FOR THE SMOOTH RUNNING WITH THE VILLAGE ESPECIALLY FOR SOCIAL CONCERNS. 4. three or more THE TEAMS: SANTALS ARE ENDOGAMIC AS A PEOPLE SINCE THEY CANNOT GET MARRIED OUTSIDE ALL THEIR TRIBE, BUT THEY ARE EXOGAMIC WHILE CLAN SINCE THEY CANNOT BECOME married between same family (p ris? ). Usually the Santals used to have FOSTERED A TOTAL OF TWELVE RACES BUT UNFORTUNATELY IN THE COURSE OF RECORD ONE HAS WANTED.

THE TEAMS ARE: 1) BASKEY, 2) BESRA, 3) CORE, 4) HASDAK’, 5) Hembrom, 6) Kisku, 7) Marandi, 8) Murmu, 9) P uria, 10) Soren, 11) Tudu, and? 12) BEDEA (THE LOST ONE). MAJOR FEATURES OF THE CLANS ARE TO REGULATE MARRIAGE, INHERITANCE, SUCCESSION AND AFFILIATION (ALI 1988; AS WELL HOSSAIN 2000). ONE BECOMES A CLAN MEMBER BY BIRTH. IT IS SAID THE PARTICULAR CLANS HAPPEN TO BE HIERARCHICALLY ORDERED ON THE BASIS OF CAREER, LIKE: Kisku raja (king), Marandi Kipis r? (wealthy or richer), Murmu A kur? (priest), Soren Sip hi? (warrior), Tudu M nd ri? (musician), and so on and so forth.

NEVERTHELESS , ACCORDING TO THE INVESTIGATOR, THESE WORK-RELATED HIERARCHIES OF STATUS DON’T HAVE ANY INFLUENCE ON THE SANTALS IN DAILY LIVES. 4. 4. AS WELL AS MARRIAGE: IS THE PRIMARY DEVICE OF MAN SOCIETY. THE FAMILY AMONG THE LIST OF SANTALS MAY BE TERMED AS OF BIOLOGICAL, JOINT, AND PROLONGED. A. HUSBAND, HIS WIFE AND THEIR SINGLE CHILDREN TYPE PART OF THE NATURAL OR INDIVISIBLE FAMILY. A HUSBAND, HIS WIFE GREAT MARRIED AND UNMARRIED DAUGHTERS AND CHILDREN AND SOMETIMES HIS OLD FATHER AND MOTHER, BROTHER FANTASTIC FAMILY KIND PART OF THE JOINT FAMILY OR PERHAPS EXTENDED FRIENDS AND FAMILY TYPE.

BASED ON THE SANTALS, MARITAL LIFE IS AN UNION AMONG A MAN AND A WOMAN, WHICH CAN BE SOCIALLY IDENTIFIED; CULTURALLY AND RELIGIOUSLY IT ALLOWS THE COUPLE TO LIVE IN A FAMILY. A SANTAL MARRIAGE CAN BE DESCRIBED ALSO AS BEING A LEGAL TRANSFER OF DEPENDENCY OF THE 8 | P a g e Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh BRIDE, COMING FROM HER FATHER’S FAMILY TOWARDS THE GROOM’S FAMILY MEMBERS. BY THIS COPY, THE GROOM’S FAMILY WOULD NOT ONLY ASSUME GUARDIANSHIP BUT ALSO ASSUMES CONTROL OVER ALL HER AFFAIRS. THROUGH MATRIMONY THE NEW BRIDE LOOSES HER PATERNAL LEGAL IDENTITY AND ACQUIRES THE IDENTITY OF THE GROOM’S FAMILY.

IN THE INSTITUTIONAL SENSE, RELATIONSHIP IS THE COLLABORATION BETWEEN A GUY AND A WOMAN REGULATED SIMPLY BY CUSTOMARY LAWS THAT BOOST LEGAL UNION BETWEEN THE SEXES AND SPECIFY THE TECHNIQUES FOR CREATING THE HUSBAND-WIFE RELATION, THE RECIPROCAL OBLIGATIONS AND THE RECOGNIZED RESTRICTIONS AFTER ITS EMPLOYEES. AS TO THE BEGINNING AND ORGANIZATION OF MARRIAGE, THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT THE CREATOR. HIMSELF HAS ESTABLISHED MARRIAGE. THAT IS, THE THAKUR JIU WHO CREATED THE FIRST INDIVIDUAL PAIR (PILCU HARAM AND PILCU BUDHI) HAS ALSO IMPLEMENTED MARRIAGE.

HOWEVER ARE SOME INSTANCES OF POLYGAMY, MONOGAMY IS THE MOTHER NATURE OF MOST SANTAL MARRIAGES. BESIDES SERVING LOVEMAKING NEEDS AND PROCREATION OF HEIRS, A SANTAL MATRIMONY HAS ALSO ADDITIONAL PURPOSES, JUST LIKE COMPANIONSHIP, CREATION OF FAMILY, ECONOMIC PROTECTION, COOPERATION INSIDE THE FAMILY ORGANIZATION, SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROTECTION, ETC . THUS, SANTAL MARRIAGE IS NOT ONLY BETWEEN TWO FOLKS OF OPPOSITE SEX BUT IT ALSO BECOMES A CONNECT OF UNION BETWEEN TWO FAMILIES, TWO VILLAGES, AND. ALSO IMPACTS THE CIRCLE OF RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE RELATIVES. M. A. JALIL DESCRIBES FOUR TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE SANTALS IN BANGLADESH. THESE ARE: 1) DANGWA BAPLA (CONTACT MARRIAGE), 2) ANGIR BAPLA (LOVE MARRIAGE), 3) OR BAPLA (FORCE MARRIAGE), AND 4) ITUT’ BAPLA (TACTICAL MARRIAGE).

MOREOVER, SANTALS DO POSSESS EXCEPTIONS PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF MARRIAGE BETWEEN CANDIDATES OF THE SAME CLAN. FOR EXAMPLE , WHEN THE MARRIAGE OF A FRESH COUPLE OF SIMILAR CLAN FOR THE VALID REASON IS NEEDED, AND CONSANGUINITY OR AFFINITY DOES NOT PREVENT IT, THEY WILL APPLY A JURIDICAL PRETENSE. IN THIS SORT OF CASE, A GREAT ELDERLY COUPLE OF A DIFFERENT TRIBE, ADOPTS THE BRIDE AS THEIR DAUGHTER THROUGH A SIMPLE PRACTICE CEREMONY AND PROVIDES THE PROPER BRAND TO HER. 5. 5 TWELVE-MONTHLY FESTIVALS AND CEREMONIES: THE SANTAL CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY IS NOTICEABLE WITH FEASTS, FESTIVALS AND RITUAL GET-TOGETHERS.

ONE OF THE CONDITIONS OFTEN used by Santals is definitely r sk? meaning delight, or pleasure, WHICH IS NOT SIMPLY DEAR TO THEIR HEARTS ALTHOUGH IS COMPONENT AND PACKAGE OF THEIR LIFESTYLE. THUS, WE FIND DANCING AND SINGING POSSESS A IMPORTANT ROLE AT EVERY FESTIVAL CELEBRATION. IT PROVIDES A SANTAL TO NEGLECT WORRIES AND STRESSES OF HIS OR HER 9 | L a g e. Cultural Group Of Bangladesh DAY-TO-DAY LIFE. IN THE CULTURAL LIFE IN THE SANTALS, FEASTS AND FESTIVALS HAVE GREAT SIGNIFICANCE FOR ANYONE ARE THE LIVING EXPRESSION OF THE DEEP HOPE OF HAPPINESS AND JOY, AND ALSO DISPLAY THE FEELING OF COMMUNITY AND SOLIDARITY BUILT-IN AS PART OF THE NATURE OF THE SANTALS.

MANY OF THIS KIND OF CHARACTERISTICS ARE EXPRESSED IN SONGS, MUSIC AND IN MOVE. IN FACT , THE SANTALS DON’T GIVE ANY KIND OF SPACE TO INDIVIDUALISM IN FACT IT IS REALLY THROUGHOUT THE FEASTS AND FESTIVALS THAT AN INDIVIDUAL REALIZES HIMSELF OR HERSELF IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD AND HIS OR HER FORESEEABLE FUTURE ROLE IN THE LIFE OF. THE COMMUNITY. ALTHOUGH, MOST OF THESE CELEBRATIONS SEEMINGLY SHOW UP AS SIMPLE GATHERING OF CLOSE FRIENDS AND RELATIVES, PEOPLE OF THE SAME SUB-CLAN OR THAT CONCERN THE PARTICULAR INHABITANTS OF THE VILLAGE; HOWEVER, THERE ARE ALSO OCCASIONS THAT INVOLVE MORE NEIGHBORHOODS, AS IT USUALLY HAPPENS ON THE OCCASION OF MARRIAGE WHEN EVER PARTICIPATION IS MOSTLY UNANIMOUS.

IN ANY OF THESE FEASTS AND FESTS, THERE ARE CERTAIN RITES AND RITUALS BEING ADOPTED OFTEN ACCOMPANIED BY SIMPLE GIVING AT THE CENTER. BAIN AND UNCTION OF PETROL, THE USE OF VERMILION TO TAG THE SACRIFICIAL VICTIM AS WELL AS BEING USED BY THE. PARTICIPANTS, HOLDS A GREATER RELEVANCE. IN FACT , MANY OF THESE FESTIVAL SHOWS CONSIST OF SOME SORT OF WORSHIP OR PERSONS CULTS. IN THE RITES AND FESTIVALS OF THE SANTALS, IT IS QUITE CLEAR THAT THEIR ECONOMICAL LIFE, INTERPERSONAL ORGANIZATION AND RITUAL SHOWS ARE INTERWOVEN MAINLY AROUND AGRICULTURE.

THE SANTALS ASSUME THAT THE ASPECTS OF MATERIAL YOUR LIFE MUST BE SHIELDED AND PROTECTED BY APPROPRIATE RITES AND FESTIVALS; AND BONGA (SPIRITS) MUST BE PLEASED BY GIVING THEIR VERY OWN DUE SHARES. MANY OF THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FESTIVALS AND RITUALISTIC CELEBRATIONS INDICATE THAT SANTALS. POSSESS DEEPER IDEAS THAT GO ABOVE MERE EXTERIOR CELEBRATIONS. NEVERTHELESS , DUE TO THE RANGE AND CONSTRAINT OF THIS ANALYZE, WE ONLY MENTION A FEW MAIN TWELVE-MONTHLY FESTIVALS AND CEREMONIES TYPICALLY OBSERVED JUST LIKE: SOHORAE (HARVEST FESTIVAL), BAHA (FLOWER festival), Erok’ (sowing of rice seeds inside the field), Iri-Gundli N wai? (offering in the FIRST FRUITS OF THE MILLET IRI), JANTHAR (OFFERING FROM THE FIRST FRUITS OF THE WINTER RICE CROP).

SANTALS ALSO HAVE OCCASIONAL RITES AND CELEBRATIONS, WHICH ARE NOR ASSOCIATED WITH GARDENING OPERATIONS NOR PERFORMED EACH YEAR. SOME OF THESE HAPPEN TO BE: JOM SIM, MAK’ THE KARAM. 15 | P a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh 5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PERSONAL REALITIES 5. 1 CAREERS AND LIVING: TRADITIONALLY SANTALS ARE MAINLY AGRICULTURISTS. THEY HOLD ON THEIR AREA AS THEIR PRINCIPAL OCCUPATION AND MEANS OF SUBSISTENCE.

ABOUT 95% OF THE SANTALS ARE INVOLVED IN GARDENING OPERATIONS. INDUSTRIOUS AND INDUSTRIOUS AS THEY ARE, HOWEVER THE CLINICAL SIDE WITH THEIR KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CULTIVATION AND TAKING CARE OF THEIR AREA HAS NOT BEEN PRODUCED. IN THE PAST THE MAJORITY OF THE SANTALS WERE LANDOWNERS, NEVERTHELESS DUE TO THE INCREASE IN POPULATION, FERMAGE BY MONEYLENDERS AND PROPERTY OWNERS, ILLEGAL. OCCUPATION OF THEIR AREA, POVERTY AND ILLITERACY, ORGANIC CALAMITIES AND SO FORTH THE VAST MAJORITY OF THE SANTALS IN BANGLADESH TAKING THEIR PROPERTY PROPERTIES.

AT THE MOMENT, NEARLY 80% OF THE SANTALS ARE LAND-LESS, FORCING THOSE TO EARN THEIR PARTICULAR LIVELIHOOD DEPENDING ON THE MERCY AND AVAILABILITY OF WORK IN THE DOMAINS OF THEIR MUSLIM OR INDIO NEIGHBORS FOR THEIR MERE SUBSISTENCE. YET, IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT TRADITIONALLY THERE ARE NO BEGGARS AMONG THE SANTALS. RATHER, THE SANTALS INSIDE THE TIME OF DIRE POVERTY VISIT THE JUNGLE TO COLLECT WILD CROPS, FRUITS, OUTRAGEOUS POTATOES AND ROOTS OF YOUNG SETS, FLOWERS, MUSHROOMS, ETC . HUNTING AND SPORTFISHING THAT USED TO BE PART OF SANTAL-LIVING, HAVE NOW TURN INTO SECONDARY IMPORTANCE DUE TO THE CHANGE OF CIRCUMSTANCE.

LACK OF EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE COMMUNITY AREAS, AS WELL FORCED VARIOUS SANTALS TO FLOCK TOWARDS THE NEARBY NEIGHBORHOODS AND METROPOLITAN AREAS IN SEARCH OF DAILY WAGES AND JOBS. THE WOMEN IN SANTAL SOCIETY PERFORM AN IMPORTANT POSITION IN MAINTAINING THEIR OWN FAMILIES BUT IN TRUTH THEY CONTINUE TO BE DEPRIVED OF THEIR EQUAL CORRECT, WHICH IS MIRRORED BY THE FACT THAT WOMEN ARE NOT ELIGIBLE FOR THE INHERITANCE OF PROPERTIES. SANTALS HAVE NEVER BEEN FOUND TO GET INTERESTED IN COMMERCE OR ANY THIS KIND OF PROFESSION.

TO AVAIL OF MONETARY SELF-RELIANCE. THIS CAN BE ONE OF THE REASONS FOR WHAT REASON THEY CONTINUE TO BE RATHER MARGINALIZED INVITING LOW INCOME IN THEIR LIVES. MOREOVER, MOST SANTALS TEND NOT TO THINK ABOUT LONG TERM, RATHER THEY MAY BE MORE CONCERNED DURING THE DAY; IT’S A DAY-TO-DAY LIVING AND THEY REMAIN SATISFIED AND HAPPY WITH THE TINY THEY CAN INCLUDE FOR RETAINING THEIR FRIENDS AND FAMILY. HOWEVER , AS A RESULT OF SOME PROGRESS IN EDUCATION, A SMALL NUMBER OF SANTALS HAVE BEEN CAPABLE TO MAKE TINY CHANGES IN THEIR VERY OWN WAY OF LIVING. 10 | L a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh SOME TOOK UP MODERN DAY PROFESSIONS LIKE TEACHINGS, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE, JUDICIAL ADVOCACY, NURSING JOBS ETC . five.

2 POLITICAL REALITY: SANTALS, A PEACE LOVING PEOPLE HAVE UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES BEEN IDENTIFIED INTERESTED IN NATIONAL POLITICS. YET, THEY HAVE ALWAYS RESPONDED WHEN ISSUES WENT GREATLY PAINFUL AND IN ADDITION THEY WERE MOVED AGAINST THE WALL STRUCTURE WHEN THEY CANNOT BEAR ANY LONGER. THE HISTORIC SANTAL REVOLUTION IN 1855-56, THE TEBHAGA ANDOLON (SHARE CROPPERS’ MOVEMENT) IN 1945, PLUS THE NACHOL BIDROHO (FARMERS’ REVOLUTION) IN THE YEAR 1950, ARE THE CONCRETE EXAMPLES OF YESTERYEAR. IN FACT , SANTALS HAVE ALWAYS BEEN USED BY OTHERS INSIDE THE FOREFRONT FIGHT.

ILLITERACY, A SHORTAGE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CREATE AND DEFICIENCY OF GENUINE. COMMAND HAVE KEPT THE SANTALS FAR FROM REACHING ANY END RESULT. IN RECENT YEARS, SOME OF THE SANTALS HAVE BEEN COMPLETELY FOUND TO CONSIDER ACTIVE ROLE IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL POLICIES BY THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE LOCAL SELECTION.

12 | P a g electronic Ethnic Band of Bangladesh 6. BELIEFS AND RITUAL PRACTICES 6. 1 THE BELIEF IN A SINGLE SUPREME GETTING: AS IT HAD BEEN MENTIONED BEFORE, SANTALS CARRY OUT BELIEVE IN 1 SUPREME BEING WHOM THEY CALL THAKUR JIU (LIFE GIVER) OR PERHAPS MARANG BURU (GREAT MOUNTAIN) WHO IS THOUGHT TO BE THE SUPREME AMONG ALL THE RELIGIOUS BEINGS. THE MOST COMMON SANTAL-TERM USED FOR THE SUPREME BECOMING. THESE DAYS IS CANDO HUMOR (SUN FATHER).

ACCORDING TO THE EXPERIENCE OF THE RESEARCHER THE SANTALS HERE WILL NOT REFER LITERALLY TO THE SUNSHINE ITSELF RATHER, IT IS AN PHRASE OF A DIVINE ACTIVITY: EXPRESSION OF WORK LOVE REGARDING HUMAN BEINGS. TO GET THE SANTALS, CANDO EFFARE IS A BENEVOLENT DEITY WHO ALSO ORGANIZES THE DAYS AND TIMES AND IS ACCOUNTABLE FOR HEAT AND COLD, RAIN AND THE SUN; AND VIA A HOME SOMEWHERE IN THE SKY’, ALLOTS EACH SANTAL A TERM OF YOUR LIFE HERE ON GLOBE. BUT , HE STAYS A LONG WAY AWAY, FAR OVER A SKY AND CANNOT BE COME TO. IT IS UNDER. THE SUN, BENEATH THE CLOUDS, THAT SANTAL LIFE IS CHALLENGED.

IN THIS ARTICLE THE BONGA ROAM AROUND AND ONLY BY COMING TO CONDITIONS WITH THEM CAN SANTALS BE COMPLETELY HAPPY. 6. two THE BELIEF IN BONGA (SPIRITS): THE SANTALS BELIEVE IN THE EXISTENCE OF THE STATE OF MIND WHO ARE BONGA. THE BONGA HAVE GOT MUCH REPERCUSSION ON DAILY LIVING OF THE SANTALS. TO ENSURE THEIR VERY OWN CONTINUING ATTENTION, BESIDE TOTAL ANNUAL SACRIFICES, THE BONGA WILL BE REMEMBERED IN A DAILY BASIS. WHENEVER A MEAL IS USED, A SMALL PORTION OF THE FOOD IS USUALLY DROPPED ON THE GROUND FOR THE BONGA, OR AT THE TIME WHENEVER RICE-BEER IS USUALLY DRUNK, JUST A LITTLE IS SPILT ON THE GROUND FOR MARANG BURU.

THUS, THE SANTALS LIVE NOT ONLY IN THEIR VERY OWN TRIBAL CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY BUT IN A BETTER SOCIETY CONSISTING OF SUPERNATURAL BEINGS AS WELL. IN PRACTICE, THE SANTALS OFTEN USE THE TERM BONGA MEANING TO INCORPORATE SOMEONE INTO THE SOCIETY BY DOING CERTAIN RITUAL. THE PHRASE FOUND IN THIS CASE IS: BONGA TALA KEDEAKO THAT MEANS, HE/SHE HAVE BEEN ADMITTED INTO SANTAL SOCIETY. ACCORDING TO THE SANTAL RELIGIOUS IDEA THERE ARE TWO SORTS OF BONGATHE MALEVOLENT PLUS THE BENEVOLENT ONES.

THE BONGA-WORSHIP IS MOSTLY TO PLEASE AND TO EMPLOY THE FORCES OF THE CHARITABLE BONGA AND ALSO TO AVERT THE ILL CAN OF THE MALICIOUS BONGA. INSIDE THE WORSHIP OF BONGA WE ARE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH ANALYTICALLY TWO RELATED ASPECTS: 13 | S a g e Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh A) THE OBJECTIVE ASPECT OF THE RELIGIOUS RITUALS IS TO HAVE AN ALLIANCE TOGETHER WITH THE BENEVOLENT BONGA AND THUS CONTROLLING OR PERHAPS DEFEATING THE POWERS IN THE MALEVOLENT BONGA; AND B) THE SIGNIFICANT ASPECT OF THE WORSHIP IS DEFINITELY MANIFESTED THROUGH VARIOUS SEASONAL AND SPIRITUAL RITES, CONVENTIONS AND RITES ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT SOCIAL TRADITIONS. SANTALS COME WITH AN INNATE MARRIAGE WITH THEIR BONGA AND CONSIDER THEMSELVES LIVING WITH THEM.

THIS RELATIONSHIP IS USUALLY OF DEPENDENCE, SUBMISSION, PROPITIATION AND REVERENTIAL FEAR. THE SANTALS DO SUPPLICATIONS; GIVE RICE-BEER; AND ANIMAL SACRIFICES IN THE NAME OF THE BONGA. IT IS WORTH MENTIONING THAT THERE ARE SITUATIONS AMONG THE SANTALS IN THE NON-URBAN VILLAGES IN WHICH PERSONS EVEN IN TIME OF SERIOUS SICKNESS PROBABLY WOULD NOT LOOK FOR MEDICAL HELP RATHER LEAVE IT FOR THE BONGA TO GET CURED. 6th.

3 BELIEF IN WITCHCRAFT: RELATED TO SANTAL BELIEF-SYSTEM, IS ADDITIONALLY THE EXISTENCE OF WITCHES. THE SANTALS BELIEVE THAT PARTICULAR NUMBER OF PEOPLE, ESPECIALLY WOMEN, WHO ALSO POSSESS SPECIAL POWER AND TECHNIQUES TO DAMAGE PEOPLE, CATTLE, AND CROPS. THESE APPARENT WITCHES ARE INVOLVED IN DOING HAZARDOUS ACTIVITIES LIKE GIVING POISONS, GETTING HUMAN LIVERS, SENDING FRUSTRATING SPIRITS TO CERTAIN PEOPLE AND CHANGING THEMSELVES IN TO BLACK CATS AND KITTENS. BECAUSE OF SUCH BELIEF IN WITCHCRAFT TECHNIQUES, THE SANTALS EASILY BELIEVE ONE ANOTHER, AND THEREFORE ARE OFTEN GENERATED FIGHT. IT REALLY IS PRESUMED IT IS ESSENTIAL TO POSSESS SUCH A BELIEF PARTICULARLY IN THE PAGAN COMMUNITY.

HOWEVER , THERE IS ALSO A COUNTER-BELIEF AMONG THE SANTALS THAT WE NOW HAVE CERTAIN PERSONS OJHA-JANGURU (SPECIALISTS), MAINLY GUYS, WHO HAVE SPECIAL POWER AND TACTICS FOR DETECTING WEREWOLVES AND NULLIFYING THEIR MEANS. THUS, WHEN SANTALS ENTER TROUBLE, THEY SEEK THE AID OF THESE PEOPLE WHO ALSO, MORE OFTEN EXPLOIT THE CULTURE. REFERRING TO THE SICKNESS AND ALSO OTHER PROBLEMS, THE SANTALS THINK THAT THEY ARE CAUSED BY THE WICKED SPIRITS WHEN THEY BECOME DISAPPOINTED WITH THE SACRIFICES OF THE PEOPLE OR WHENEVER THEY THINK THAT THEY CAN BE BEING MANIPULATED BY SEVERAL EVIL-MINDED PERSONS (WITCHES).

CONSEQUENTLY , THE SANTALS TRY TO RECOGNIZE THE AGENTS OF THE PROBLEMS THROUGH THE ACCOMPANIED BY A OJHAJANGURU AND TRY TO PACIFY EACH AGENT THROUGH VARIOUS SURRENDER. 14 | P a g elizabeth. Ethnic Group Of Bangladesh six.

4 THE ANCESTORS: FROM THE RITES AND RITUALS AS PRACTICED BY SANTALS, IT IS VERY EVIDENT THAT ANCESTOR-WORSHIP IS A FREQUENT FEATURE AMONG THEM. THE DECEASED ANCESTORS ARE THE REAL BENEFACTORS OF THE FAMILY MEMBERS OR ORGANIZATIONS TO WHICH THEY WILL BELONGED AND THAT THEY ARE EASILY APPROACHABLE BY THEIR LIVING KINSMEN. THEREFORE, AT ALL IMPORTANT OCCASIONS OF BIRTH, OF MARRIAGE OR OF DEATH THE DECEASED ANCESTORS WILL BE REMEMBERED AND OFFERED ESCHEW. 6. your five THE JAHERTHAN OR THE SACRED GROVE IS AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT TO A SANTAL VILLAGE. IT IS JUST A SACRED PLACE OF SPECIAL WORSHIP FOR THE SANTALS.

AFTER A VILLAGE HAS BEEN SET UP, A JAHERTHAN IS INSTALLED THROUGH RITUAL CEREMONY AT THE OUTSKIRT OF THE COMMUNITY. THE MAIN DEITY OF THE JAHERTHAN, IS KNOWN AS JAHER ERA (THE LADY IN THE GROVE). IN LINE WITH THE SANTALS, SHE RESIDES THERE BESIDES ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT DEITIES SUCH AS THE MOREKO-TURUIKO (LITERALLY MEANS FIVE-SIX). THE JAHER ERA PRESIDES IN THE SACRED GROVE, TENDS OVER OTHER BONGA IN THE JAHERTHAN AND LOOKS FOLLOWING YOUR INTERESTS WITH THE VILLAGERS PARTICULARLY FOR THEIR PHYSICAL NEEDS.

THE SPIRITS WITH THE JAHERTHAN HAPPEN TO BE WORSHIPPED DURING THE PRINCIPAL CONVENTIONS, LIKE SOHORAE (HARVEST FESTIVAL), BAHA. (FLOWER FESTIVAL), EROK’ (SOWING FESTIVAL), AND SO ON TO GET THE GENERAL WELL BEING OF THE TOWN PARTICULARLY FOR OBTAINING GOOD CROPS AND FOR THE FITNESS OF THE VILLAGERS AND THEIR ANIMALS. 6. six The Meters njhithan? and also the altar from the headman is positioned along side the kulhi (VILLAGE ROAD) OR OFTEN ON THE CENTRAL PLACE OF THE TOWN OR IN FRONT THE HOUSE IN THE M njhi? (the headman). It is assumed that the Manjhi bonga (spirit of the headman) RESIDES WITH THIS ALTAR AND ACTS AS THE SPIRITUAL ADVISOR OF THE HEADMAN. HERE THE M njhi? offers sacrifice for the advantage of himself, his family and for the whole.

VILLAGE. 6. 7 THE HOUSE-ALTAR: INSIDE THE INNER SIDE OF YOUR SANTAL PROPERTY, THERE REMAINS THE bhit r,? a little compartment, which is the darkest space of the house. It is the home OF THE ORAK BONGA (HOUSE SPIRITS) OR OFTEN KNOWN AS ABGE BONGATHE BONGA OF THE SUB-CLAN.

THE HEAD FROM THE FAMILY DOES THE WORSHIP. IN JUST ABOUT ANY OCCASION IN THE FAMILY AND SOCIABLE FESTIVALS, FOODSTUFF OFFERING IS CREATED ON THIS ARA. THE NAMES WITH THE ORAK BONGA ARE NOT SHOWED OUTSIDERS AND EVEN TO THE GIRL MEMBERS OF THE HOME RATHER, PASSED DOWN FROM FATHER TO SON. USUALLY THE ELDEST BOY RECEIVES THE NAME FROM HIS FATHER.

15 | L a g e. Cultural Group Of Bangladesh The bhit r? is additionally used being a secret location to germinate and store l ndi? (rice beer), WHICH IS NOT ONLY APPLIED AS REGULAR DRINK NEVERTHELESS USE IS SIGNIFICANT AND EXPANDED TO SOCIO-CULTURAL RITUALISTIC CELEBRATIONS, AND EVEN THAT TO BE WANTED TO SATISFY THE BONGA. 6. almost 8 THE AFTER-LIFE IS THE EXTENSION OF LIFE THAT IS OCCUPIED THIS WORLD. THE SANTALS ASSUME THAT THE SOUL OF THE DECEASED GOES TO A SHADOWY WORLD WHERE THE PERSON REQUIRES THE MATERIALS OF THIS WORLD. THIS REALLY IS WELL STATED WITH THE RITUAL PRACTICES COMPLETED AT THE TIME OF FUNERAL AND DURING THE BHANDAN, THE VERY LAST CEREMONY DONE IN HONOR FROM THE DEAD.

DURING THE PAST, IT WAS PERFORMED IMMEDIATELY AFTER ALL OF THE REQUIREMENTS HAD BEEN FULFILLED INTENDED FOR THE DECEASED PERSON, IN PRESENT DAYS AND NIGHTS SUCH WEDDING CEREMONY, IN A RICH FAMILY, IS DONE WITHIN SEVERAL MONTHS FROM YOUR DEATH IN ADDITION TO A POOR FRIENDS AND FAMILY, IT IS ONE FULL YEAR OR TWO. PERTAINING TO THE SANTALS, THE MORE QUITE A FEW ARE THE ANIMAL-VICTIMS OFFERED IN HONOR OF THE LIFELESS DURING THE BHANDAN, THE MORE COULD BE THE ANIMALS THE FACT THAT ANCESTOR MAY HAVE IN THE VARIOUS OTHER WORLD. MOST ANIMAL-VICTIMS WILL BE DONATED BY RELATIVES AND NONE OF THEM ARE TO BE ABLE TO ESCAPE FOR FORESEEABLE FUTURE USE BY THE FAMILY WORRIED.

TRADITIONALLY EVERY SINGLE SANTAL, MEN AND FEMALE, SHOULD REALLY BEAR UNDELETABLE SCARS on the body. For the male, it is the sik? that must be by least three scars ADDRESSING JION (LIFE), MORON (DEATH), AND JION (LIFE). THE SANTAL LADIES DO NOT practice sik?, but to escape to get devoured by the worms in the life-after, they have THEIR UPPER BODY TATTOOED, WHICH IS SOMETIMES CALLED BY THE SANTALS KHODA. FR.

PUSSETTO, ALONG WITH HIS VAST EXPERIENCE OF THE SANTALS TESTIFIED: I POSSESS NOT ONLY SEEN SANTAL GIRLS TATTOOED ON THE CHEST NEVERTHELESS ALSO AROUND THE BACK, ON THE FACE, ON THE BICEPS AND TRICEPS AND ON THE LEGS; THE TATTOO HAD BEEN ENOUGH DIFFICULT, BUT PURELY ORNAMENTALTHE SKIN IMAGE WILL IN ORDER TO THE WOMEN TO GET RECOGNIZED THROUGH THE RESPECTIVE HUSBANDS IN THE ADDITIONAL LIFE. IN OUR TIMES YOUNGSTERS OF THE SANTALS IN BANGLADESH DOES NOT practice sik? or perhaps khoda to be more exact these are becoming voluntary. However , every SANTAL CHILD CARRIES NEEDLE-EYE WHOLES IN HIS/HER TWO THE EARS TO USE ORNAMENTS WHEN THEY INCREASE UP AND ESPECIALLY AT THE TIME OF HIS/HER MARRIAGE. sixteen | P a g e Cultural Group Of Bangladesh 7. MORALITY IN SANTAL CONCEPTION PERTAINING TO THE SANTALS, MORALITY MEANS RIGHTFUL CARRYING OUT AND LIVING; AND LEFTOVER TRUE AND LOYAL.

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