Similarly Newman used a correlation to interpret the findings by his research and found a relationship among undefended space and levels of crime. Correlations cannot demonstrate cause and effect, as a result other factors behind these findings cannot be ruled out. One other feasible explanation may have been that the different estates in contrast by Newman were merely in high or low crime areas, or that policing strategies of the areas was distinct.

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However in comparison Brower ainsi que al (1981) used selection interviews to try and establish how people felt about areas of defensible space. Selection interviews are a good way of obtaining abundant and thorough data, even so unlike Newman’s data which has been factual (recorded crime figures) interview data is qualitative and needs to get interpreted by researcher. Unavoidably the way this is done can be influenced by the researchers sights and therefore prejudiced.

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In addition to this, as in the research simply by Mercer, you will find issues relating to the trustworthiness of people evaluated and offering socially satisfactory responses to get considered. The study by Equidad was a great observation and therefore, as in Smith’s observation, this kind of research could possibly be argued to obtain greater environmental validity than research employing laboratory methods, however there are problems again of observer bias impacting on what is recorded. Also this study employed institutionalised delinquents as members and therefore it is hard to generalise the leads to any other situations, although the conclusions do include implications pertaining to institutions.

Ethical issues can be particularly relevant in this study as carrying out observations of institutionalised members may be a breach of their right to withdraw from the research. It could become argued that if the findings were carried out by a specialist their presence may possess affected the behaviour, on the other hand if video cameras were used covertly there can be a problem in ensuring that every behaviour was observed, beyond the ethical concerns mentioned. Designers and architects could use the research mentioned to make certain working areas meant for women and men have various sizes in order to take bank account of different sexuality needs to get space.

When making housing estates architects must make sure that the partial public areas are defensible in that they may be overlooked and also have markers to suggest ownership. They should include barriers and fenced areas around homes and work with plants and foliage because markers. In institutional design it would seem important to use design to evidently mark out areas to be able to try and generate established limitations and reduce out and out aggression caused by rowdy space use.

It may be possible to include certain time slot machines for prisoners to use partially public areas to help reduce any aggression due to dominance on most desirable areas.

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