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Lifespan Development, Eriksons Theory, Psychological Development, Sigmund Freud

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Freud and Erikson Theory

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Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory

This kind of essay begins by speaking about Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by simply Sigmund Freud; the theory shows that individual behaviour is definitely the result of discord between the biological drives that develop slowly and gradually from the child years and enjoy a significant part in deciding a person’s personality. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and analyzing it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i actually. e. Erikson’s theory that reduces the importance of neurological contributions. Erikson’s Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by simply historical, cultural, and cognitive factors. Erikson’s theory clarifies challenges or issues that persons face today. The fact that words including “inner-space, inch “identity crisis” and “lifespan” have attained prominence in spoken and written dialect is display of Erikson Theory’s relevance. The Erikson’s theory also has a heuristic aspect that has induced thinking amongst philosophers, theologians and individuals. This paper will define, compare and contrast the theories suggested by Sigmund and Erikson.

II. Freud Theory

The psychosexual theory by Freud argues that phases of personality development are based on growth of the sexual intercourse instinct and that the manner in which guardians control the impulses out of this instinct is going to determine the child’s long term character.

3. Erikson Theory

Erikson’s theory, also known as the coherence theory of real truth, utilizes a piece of the philosophical perspective to clarify personality. In contrast to Freud, Erikson does not use a “scientific argument” to his understanding; instead he utilizes philosophical assertions in the opinion that, to generate a proper character theory, one would have to make use of a philosophical reasoning. To develop understanding, Erikson investigated the development of the super-ego and in addition differentiated between adult ethics, adolescent ideology and toddler mortality. In exploring these kinds of developments and differentiating between your three ethical commitments, Erikson was able to demonstrate manner by which epigenetic hypotheses describe the development of principles/conscience. The egos discussed by Erikson can be looked at as ethical beliefs that every individual should integrate in his or her your life. Thus unlike Freud, Erikson’s philosophical transactions are explicit/direct (Shaffer Kipp, 2010).

IV. Compare and contrast ideas

Even though Erikson accepted lots of the ideas recommended by Freud, he differed from his theory in two different facets. First of all, Erikson in his 1963 work emphasized that children are curious explorers and discoverers who frequently try to adjust to different circumstances, unlike Freud’s idea that the children are passive subjects to biological hard disks and that they should be moulded only by their adults. A second significant difference is the fact Freud places more anxiety on sex impulses and less stress about cultural impact on than Erikson does. In accordance to Schaffer (2009), Erikson’s thinking need to have been educated by his own experiences.

Difference among Freud and Erikson theories

Erikson is renowned for his psychosocial theory while Sigmund Freud is renowned for his psychosexual theory. Both individuals are considered the dads of modern psychology and theories they are praised for, are on the development of character. Although both theories have a lot of similar aspects, for instance, the portrayal of life in stages, they are doing have a lot of differences too. For instance, your theories themselves have different building. The psychosexual theory is founded on Freud’s perception that an individual is a slave of her or his biological tendencies and that an individual may get fixated if gratification is not achieved in a certain stage. While Erikson’s theory is founded on Freud’s job, he, in contrast to Freud, feels that culture and traditions plays better roles inside the development of could be personality. In Freud’s theory, this is part of the phallic phase. The phallic period, according to Freud may be the phase where the libido strength is still focused in the reproductive organs. And this this is also the stage where boy-child identifies with his daddy and the girl-child similarly to her mother. Later on the males start having attracted to their very own mothers (Oedipus complex) although girls for their fathers (Electra’s complex). In the psychosocial theory, Erikson offers referred to this kind of phase because the initiative versus sense of guilt phase – whereby kids start to presume control over their surroundings. Relating to Erikson, if the child succeeds with this phase, she or he develops a sense of purpose although, if he or she would not succeed they are really left with a feeling of guilt.

Generally speaking, the psychosexual theory is described as follows: According to Freud, your initial stage is the oral phase, and the child interacting with his / her environment making use of the mouth brands it. At this time of existence, the child is generally completely dependent on its guardians/caretakers and builds up trust only through the mouth. Subsequently is the anal phase in which the main concern is the schooling the child to control their bowel and urinary movements. Achievement in this phase is characterized by child beginning to use the washrooms effectively (Jarvis Chandler, 2001). The third level is the phallic phase, relating to Freud, in this stage the libido/sexual energy is concentrated on the reproductive system organs. In this stage boys start receiving attracted to all their mothers (Oedipus complex) whilst girls for their fathers (Electra’s complex). In the Oedipus complex, the young man child becomes attracted to the mother and starts browsing the father like a competitor to become dethroned plus the girl child similarly opinions the mother as a rival. The fourth level is also called the latent period and through this level, the sexual drive or intimate energy is targeted on alternative activities such as sports and education. The 6th and last stage inside the psychosexual theory is also termed as the penile stage and through this level, the child develops attraction towards opposite sexual intercourse. Moreover, your child starts to outgrow his personal interests and begins developing a concern for community (Cherry, n. d).

Erikson’s psychosocial theory is also broken into phases. Nevertheless , according to Erikson the first developmental stage is the trust versus mistrust period. In this phase, the child through trust relationship with the activities of the caregivers evolves a sense of ease and comfort, safety and trust. In the psychosocial theory the second level is referred to as the autonomy compared to doubt and shame (Hayes, 1999). Erikson argued that is the level where the infant starts producing feelings of control of their particular environment through training by way of a caregivers. The third phase may be the initiative versus guilt stage whereby your child begins to assert his or her beliefs in sociable interactions. Your fourth phase is a industry versus inferiority stage whereby the child becomes interested in gaining of intellectual and also other skills leading to self-gratification, in the event successful. Nevertheless , Erikson pointed out that the development is extremely based on the push and guidance of caregivers, father and mother and teachers (Jarvis, Chandler, 2001). The fifth period of creation is the Personality vs . Part confusion level. In this stage, the individual is usually believed to be along the way of expanding his or her self-identity. Success with this stage leaves an individual using a sense of control and independence. The next step in the psychological theory is the intimacy vs isolation stage where a person becomes interested in developing personal relationships. In respect to Erikson the intimacy versus solitude phase is extremely dependent on the identity versus role dilemma stage, for the reason that a strong id of home is a requirement to the progress effective personal relationships. Step 2 is the generativity versus wachstumsstillstand phase where an individual develops a sense of family and career. In the final developmental stage, which in turn Erikson known as integrity versus despair period is 1 whereby a person reflects on her or his achievements. This kind of stage is stuffed with nostalgia (Difference Between Erikson and Freud, 2011).

Freud’s theory largely concentrates on the duration between childhood and adolescence in which he postulates that the genital stage of advancement lasts till death in contrast to Erikson’s theory which has three more stages for adulthood which are closeness versus seclusion, generativity vs . stagnation and integrity vs . despair (Cherry, n. d). Freud’s theory is based on sexual desire energy, whilst Erikson would not give much emphasis on sexual intercourse for advancement personality. Erikson concentrated upon identity trusting that one’s identity was created throughout his lifespan, when Freud opined that identity is primarily developed in adolescence. Freud and Erikson have defined the developing stages in different ways. Even though both equally opine that life builds up according to predetermined phases, Freud’s psychosexual theory focuses on the effect of sexual intercourse on individuality development although Erikson’s psychosocial theory targets societal influence on personality creation (Difference Among Erikson and Freud, 2011).

In Freud’s psychosexual theory he believed that people will be born with Id (which according to him is a pleasure searching for part of a person’s personality). Freud believed that Id was important as it drives a single towards his or her basic requirements. He also argued that Id does not consider the circumstances and just looks for gratification. He further contended that inside three years of life

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