Describe Kant’s theory of Duty as the basis of morality (33 marks). Emanuel Kant was a German Philosopher who lived in the past due 18th 100 years and was arguably one of the biggest thinkers in history. He came up with a guide to honnete in immediate opposition to teontological or perhaps consequential theories.

Many persons use his ethics as a guide to living a ethical life, but what exactly can be Kant’s values? How performed he believe that we should confront moral complications and how can we apply it within our every day lives? Instead of condition based theories his theory was deontological ethics.

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This is certainly a very overall and goal form of ethics, which has been exercised using a logical thinking process. Kant believed that an moral theory should be universalisable to be morally accurate. This means it must be able to be used on everyone across the world regardless of conditions or conditions. Kant presumed for this to be possible it must contain a thing that was ‘unconditionally and generally good’. This must me something that can be ‘intrinsically good’ which is good in itself, the greatest good ‘without qualification’.

This thing that determines the moral well worth of our activities cannot be instrumentally good, a thing that only turns into good pending the outcomes of the action or like some things including happiness, which are possible of making a situation morally worse. Kant believed that there was only 1 thing that is the right issue for us to complete in any situation to make all of us morally right. He declared that ‘a morally good gentleman is a guy of good will’.

Kant declared that it was ‘impossible to conceive anything in the world nearly as good without diploma, except great will’. To get something to get of good is going to, it is not dependent on the amazing benefits of what effects or perhaps accomplishes. If this were, it could not be looked at to be of unconditional value and intrinsic goodness because of it would become a ‘means to a end not an end in itself’.

This prospects us to therefore conclude that the consequences of any moral action are unimportant. Kant details the most important issue as being ‘not what the action accomplishes nevertheless the motive in back of the act’ (Moral Concerns – Meters Palmer). On the other hand we may ask what exactly is the best motive to acquire?

Kant simply states that ‘ a good wills simply motive should be to act for the sake of duty’. To get an take action to be generally, intrinsically good at itself, it must not performed because of its consequences, nor via self-interest, fear or as a means to an end, rather because it is each of our soul responsibility to do it. We need to always change places with duties sake simply because it’s the right thing to do. We must be specific as to what this kind of specifically entails.

Kant is saying that we should not do a ethical act because of self-interest. This is certainly understandable because if we are doing it basically because we get something great out of it i. e. an incentive or a very good name in that case we are not doing it because we just know it may be the right thing to do. Nevertheless we should also be aware that this kind of also includes the idea that we can certainly not do a ethical act because it comes naturally to us.

We cannot take action because we derive delight or pleasure from performing something we realize is right or perhaps because we all will feel good about ourself if we support other people. It is because we are carrying it out indirectly for self-pleasure which again is wrong, it will not include the occurrence of good will certainly. Even if duty does coincides with what all of us naturally perform, it does not associated with act intrinsically good mainly because we are carrying it out for another reason besides doing it because we all know it is the duty for this. The fact we happen to be undertaking what duty prescribes is merely luck.

It really is wrong since the moment something that duty says we should perform becomes something we no more enjoy, all of us won’t take action. We may not be for example honest as long as that pleases us to do so. Kant therefore concludes that ‘this will does not be good will certainly, just as if they happen to have acted by self-interest.

So far Kant offers told us that a morally good person is a ‘man of good will’ and that a man of good will is the one which follows wherever his responsibility lies. This can be done intended for the very explanation that it is the proper thing to do and have a responsibility to do it. It does not are derived from self-interest, determining consequences, taking a look at specific conditions or by pleasure out of doing anything for someone else.

Nevertheless we continue to need to know ‘where our duty lies’ and what it is exactly that we are supposed to do to become man of good will who what responsibility foretells him to do. We are able to be sure however that since it is a deontological argument, that we get an absolute basic principle to follow that will not look at effects of particular actions or changes in certain situations. It really is absolute and definite and we can be sure that there are no exclusions to the secret. We also know that it really must be universably suitable ‘to everyone irrespective of their particular situation’ (M Palmer – Moral Problems).

It therefore need to contain something which all individuals have in common therefore we can all know where each of our duty lies in different situations and Kant believed that was Purpose or rationality. He declared humans happen to be rational creatures, we are all in a position of resolving problems applying reason. We all have an inborn intellectual power that we are delivered with which we can use to exercise rationally where our duty lies.

Kant believed it turned out unacceptable to think about consequences of a particular actions and then decide if we should take action or certainly not because there is too little evidence for us to make a right decision from. Rather we should look at the actual experience of meaningful obligation and this is the a sense of what we think we ‘ought to do’. Following what our work prescribes entails the idea that that which we feel we ‘ought’ to accomplish is what is right.

We should every have a feeling of moral requirement; we all know the excellent and right thing to do so therefore we have to do it. Therefore our work becomes to obey our rational considering which prescribes what the morally correct thing we should do is. Yet , we have not proven what the ‘supreme principle of morality is’. This one rule that we most must follow as a way to our realistic thinking is something which Margen calls the categorical essential.

By very important we mean something that tells us what actions would be good at the form of any command, generally using the terms ‘I ought’. A specific imperative therefore is an act that is certainly solely good at itself or intrinsically very good. The act is done as a result of very ‘nature’ of the take action itself but not to achieve something different as a means to it. It truly is done just ‘for a unique sake’ and is also free from siguiente beneficial motives. On the other hand we now have hypothetical imperatives as an opposite.

These types of acts are done because of a wish to achieve something else. For example if I exercise more I will turn into fitter. This tells us what acts are good as a means to something else. Palmer uses the example of telling the truth to demonstrate the difference between the two. A categorical crucial would be ‘tell the truth’ because it is good in itself and always is the right thing to do.

The theoretical imperative would be ‘if you want to be trusted, inform the truth’ because we are gaining a thing for themselves by doing the ideal thing i actually. e. we could trusted. After we know the distinctive feature of the theory of morality, we can analyse it more deeply so we can specifically know exactly what it is the fact defines a moral act as being good. Margen said that a morally very good act got intrinsic worth.

This is where something happens to be good and valuable in on its own. The very characteristics of them makes it valuable no matter anything else. For example Kant presumed that Humans were of intrinsic value and therefore ought to be treated while an ‘end in themselves’. The opposite for this is for that reason is instrumental valuable which can be when something happens to be good only because of what it can achieve and so is cured as a ‘means to an end’. Kant explained this is not how we should deal with other human’s i. elizabeth. to use those to gain some thing for ourself.

He is saying all humans should be remedied equally plus the same, we ought to treat everybody as we might treat yourself. So for instance , racism would always be wrong in the eyes of Margen. This backlinks to the Christian idea of the Golden guideline to ‘love thy neighbour as thyself’ which Christ, the ultimate sort of human amazing benefits, instructed his people to stick to. The final and key characteristic that Kant placed emphasis on when about the categorical imperative was the works ability to always be universalisable. An important quote this individual used was ‘ We ought never to act so that I can also will certainly that my maxim should become a general law’.

At this time he is suggesting a method we are able to use to find exactly what regulations are good because they have ‘moral worth’. Margen stated that if the regulation can be used on everyone in the world without being contradicted then it great. For example we can universalise the maxim ‘do not murder’ to all of society in spite of any circumstance without there being contradictions. By simply contradiction, Kant means 1 of 2 things, Contradiction in the Is going to or Mother nature.

If we simply cannot universalise a great act because of either one of those contradictions then we must consider that it is morally wrong. By contradiction in the law of nature, Margen is referring to rules that cannot be utilized because they are ‘straightforwardly self contradictory’ – (M Palmer – Moral Problems). The maxim or regulation can not be applied universally as it contradicts the laws of nature meaning it actually is impossible to do. For example the saying ‘never speak until you are used to first’ is not possible to keep since if everyone applied it then no one would talk whatsoever because we might always be waiting to be spoken to. Out of this we can see that following this maxim would not be the good thing to complete.

The Contradiction in the will is certainly not when some thing contridicts alone, rather a maxim which the person engaged ‘could not possibly want to see universalised’ (Palmer). We may realize that if it was applied globally we could take the situation exactly where we would not want everyone to use it since it would help us in the event that they didn’t. For example the saying ‘do certainly not give money for the poor’ because we may discover ourselves eventually, through no-fault of our individual, poor and homeless and then we would desire people to sum to all of us to help us survive. Kant gave one easy rule to following universalisabiltiy and this was ‘ Action only on the maxim by which you can at the same time will it be a universal law’.

With this this individual prescribed a formula which we can all follow to see if a maxim is usually universalisable. Before acting we need to ask what rule we would be following if we completed this work and this is the maxim. Then we are to ask ourselves whether it was feasible and might we would become willing for doing it to be and then everyone always in all areas. If it simply cannot then it can be described as contradiction in either the law of character or in the will.

After that quite simply, if this can be universalised do it, if not in that case don’t. In conclusion we can see that to follow Kants deontological ethics we must ‘act solely in accordance to duty and then for the reason of work only’ (Palmer – Meaningful Problems). It is often a very popular theory, which a large number of people comply with, sometimes without having to be aware of this. However we all do need to request is it of practical use in out lives today?

Can we honestly admit it is valuable, practical and realistic when coming up with moral decisions? In my following section I actually shall be looking at these queries in a bit more depth to verify if we can rationally come up with a solution.

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