I. ADDRESS OVERVIEW

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Foundation Concepts: Computer systems, reviews styles and improvements in microcomputer, midrange, and mainframe personal computers; basic computer concepts; as well as the major types of technologies used in peripheral devices for computer input, output, and storage.

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Computers ” Key types of computer systems will be summarized in Figure 13. 2 . Your computer is a approach to information processing components that perform suggestions, processing, outcome, storage, and control capabilities. Its components include input and output devices, a central control unit (CPU), and primary and secondary storage area devices.

The main functions and hardware in a computer system happen to be summarized in Figure 13. 9

Microcomputer Systems ” Microcomputers are used as computers, network pcs, personal digital assistants, technological workstations, and information kitchen appliances. Like most computers today, microcomputers are interconnected in a variety of telecommunications networks. This typically involves local area sites, client/server sites, intranets and extranets, and the Internet. Additional Computer Systems ” Midrange personal computers are increasingly used while powerful network servers, and for many multiuser business data processing and scientific applications.

Mainframe computers are larger and even more powerful than most middle size computers. They normally are faster, convey more memory capacity, and can support more network users and peripheral equipment. They are designed to handle the data processing needs of large organizations with large volumes of transaction finalizing, or with complex computational problems. Supercomputers are a unique category of extremely powerful mainframe computer systems designed for substantial computational assignments.

II. LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Learning Objective

¢ Recognize the major types, trends, and uses of microcomputer, mid-range and mainframe computer systems.

¢ Outline the technologies and uses of computer peripherals for input, output, and storage.

¢ Identify and present examples of the constituents and features of a computer.

¢ Discover the computer devices and peripherals you would get or suggest for a organization of your choice, and explain the causes for your options.

III. NOTES FROM A CLASS

Section one particular: Computer Systems: User and Organization Computing

INTRODUCTION

All personal computers are devices of type, processing, outcome, storage, and control pieces. Technology is definitely evolving in a rapid tempo, and fresh forms of suggestions, output, processing, and storage area devices continue to enter the market. Analyzing City of Richmond and Tim Beaty Builders

We are able to learn a lot about innovative business uses of PDAs from this case. Take a couple of minutes to read that, and we will go over it (See City of Richmond and Harry Beaty Building contractors in Section IX).

TYPES OF PERSONAL COMPUTERS -[Figure 13. 2]

There are many major kinds of computer systems using a variety of attributes and capabilities. Thus, computer systems are typically classified as:

¢ Mainframe computers

¢ Mid-range computers

¢ Microcomputers

These categories will be attempts to describe the family member computing electric power provided by distinct computing systems or types of computers therefore , they are really not precise classifications. Several experts foresee the blending or disappearance of several computer types. They think that many midrange and mainframe systems have happened obsolete by the power and versatility of client/server networks of microcomputers and web servers. Most recently, someindustry experts include predicted that the emergence of network computer systems and info appliances pertaining to applications on the Internet and corporate intranets will change many computers, especially in huge organisations in addition to the home laptop market.

MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS

Microcomputers are the smallest but most important categories of computers systems for business people and consumers. Fortunately they are referred to as computers (or PCs). The computer power of current microcomputers is greater than that of the mainframe personal computers of earlier generations for a portion of their cost. They have turn into powerful-networked specialist workstations for proper use by end users in business.

Microcomputerscategorised by size

1 . Handheld

2 . Laptop

3. Laptop

4. Portable

your five. Desktop

6. Floor-standing

Microcomputerscategorised simply by use

1 . Residence

2 . Personal

3. Specialist

4. Workstation

5. Multi-user Systems

Microcomputerscategorised by particular purpose

1 . Workstation Computers

2 . Network Servers

3. Personal Digital Co-workers

Workstation Pcs ” a lot of microcomputers are powerful workstationcomputers (technical function stations) that support applications with large mathematical calculating and images display demands such as computeraided design (CAD) in engineering, or purchase and collection analysis inside the securities sector. Network Machines ” are usually more powerful microcomputers that co-ordinate telecommunications and resourcesharing in small neighborhood networks (LANs), and Net and intranet websites. This is actually the fastest developing microcomputer program category.

Network Computers:

¢ Network Computers (NCs) are a major fresh microcomputer category designed primarily for use with the Internet and corporate intranets by clerical workers, operational employees, and knowledge workers with specialised or limited computing applications.

In-between NCs and complete-featured PCs will be stripped-down Computers known as NetPCs or legacy-free PCs. NetPCs are designed for the world wide web and a limited range of applications within a organization. Examples happen to be: Dell’s Webpc, Compaq’s IPaq, HP’s e-PC, and eMachine’s eOne.

Network computers (also called slim clients) happen to be low-cost, sealed, networked microcomputers with no or perhaps minimal hard drive storage. Users of network computers count primarily online and intranet servers for their operating system and web browser, Java-enabled application application, and info access and storage. Key attractions of network computers over full-featured PCs will be their low priced to:

¢ Purchase

¢ Upgrade

¢ Maintenance

¢ Support

Other benefits to businesses include:

¢ Easy software syndication and license

¢ Computing system standardisation

¢ Decreased end user support requirements

¢ Increased manageability through centralised supervision and enterprisewide control of computer network assets.

Information Home appliances

The market is offering a number of gadgets and details appliances that offer users the ability to perform allow host of basic computational chores. Samples of some data appliances contain: ¢ Personal Digital Co-workers ” (PDAs) are designed for hassle-free mobile marketing and sales communications and calculating. PDAs employ touch monitors, pen-based handwriting recognition, or keyboards to assist mobile staff send and receive Email-based, access the Web, and exchange information such as appointments, to-do lists, and sales contacts with their desktop PCs or internet servers.

¢ Set-top bins and video-game consoles that connect to house TV models. These devices let you surf the Web or perhaps send and receive E-mail and watch TV programs or perhaps play games at the same time.

¢ Wireless PDAs and cell and PCS phones and wired telephone-based appliances that can send and receive E-mail and access the Web.

Laptop Terminals

Computer system terminals happen to be undergoing a serious conversion to networked laptop devices. By way of example: ¢ Dumb terminals will be keyboard/video screen devices with limited digesting capabilities, to intelligent terminals, which are altered networked Computers, network computers or different microcomputer-powered network devices. Intelligent terminals can perform data admittance and some info processing jobs independently. ¢ Networked ports which may be House windows terminals that are dependent on network servers intended for Windows computer software, processing power, and storage, or Internet ports, which rely upon Internet or perhaps intranet website servers because of their operating systems and application application. ¢ Purchase terminals really are a form of brilliant terminal. Uses can be found in banking companies retail stores, production facilities, and other operate sites. Cases are ATM’s, factory creation recorders, and POS terminals.

MIDRANGE COMPUTER SYSTEMS

Midrange computers, including minicomputers and sophisticated network servers, aremulti-user devices that canmanage networks of PCs and terminals. Attributes of mid-range computers consist of:

¢ Generally, midrange computers are general-purpose computers which might be larger and more powerful than most microcomputers but are more compact and less effective than many large mainframes.

¢ Be less expensive to buy, function, and maintain than mainframe personal computers.

¢ Have become popular as powerful network servers to assist manage significant Internet websites, business intranets and extranets, and client/server networks.

¢ Digital commerce and also other business uses of the Net are well-liked high-end machine applications, as are integrated enterprisewide manufacturing, division, and monetary applications.

¢ Data factory management, info mining, and online analytical processing are contributing to the growth of high-end servers and other midrange systems.

¢ Initially became popular since minicomputers to get scientific exploration, instrumentation devices, engineering examination, and industrial process monitoring and control. Minicomputers could easily manage such uses because these kinds of applications will be narrow in scope , nor demand the processing versatility of mainframe systems.

¢ Serve as industrial process-control and manufacturing plant pcs and they play a major role in computeraided manufacturing (CAM).

¢ Take those form of powerful technical workstations for computer-aided design (CAD) and other computation and graphics-intensive applications.

¢ Are used as front-end pcs to assist mainframe computers in telecommunications finalizing and network management.

¢ Can function in normal operating conditions (do not need air conditioning or perhaps electrical wiring). ¢ Smaller sized models of minicomputers do not need an employee of specialists to operate these people.

MIDRANGE COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

Act as industrial process-control and manufacturing plant computers. Be an important factor in computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).

Act as powerful technological workstations for computer-aided design (CAD) and other computation and graphics-intensive applications

Serve as front-end pcs to assist mainframe computers in telecommunications control and network management.

Midrange Computer while Network Storage space:

¢ Electronic commerce and other business uses of the Internet are well-liked high-end machine applications, similar to integrated enterprisewide manufacturing, syndication, and financial applications.

¢ Other applications, like data warehouse supervision, data mining, and online analytical control are causing the growth of high-end computers and other mid-range systems.

¢ Serve as effective network web servers to help control large Internet web sites, corporate and business Intranets and extranets, and client/server networks

MAINFRAME PERSONAL COMPUTERS

Mainframe pcs are large, fast, and powerful personal computers. Characteristics of mainframe computers include:

¢ They are really physically larger and more highly effective than micros and minis.

¢ Can process billions of instructions per second (MIPS).

¢ Have huge primary safe-keeping capacities. Working memory capacity may range from a huge selection of megabytes to several gigabytes of primary storage area.

¢ Mainframes have slimmed down considerably in the last several years, dramatically lowering air-conditioning demands, electronic electric power consumption, and floor space requirements, and thus their particular acquisition and operating costs.

¢ Sales of mainframes have increased due to price reductions and the increasein applications such as info mining and warehousing, decision support, and electronic business.

Mainframe Computer Applications:

¢ Deal with the information control needs of major organizations and government agencies with many workers and customers.

¢ Handle tremendous and complicated computational concerns.

¢ Used in organisations processing great volumes of transactions.

¢ Handle wonderful volumes of complex measurements involved in technological and executive analyses and simulations of complex design and style projects.

¢ Serve as superservers for the top client/server sites and high-volume Internet web sites of large companies.

¢ Are becoming a popular business-computing program for data mining and warehousing, and electronic business applications.

Supercomputer Systems:

The term supercomputer describes a category of will pleasure your clit like no other vibrator computer systems specifically designed for technological, engineering, and business applications requiring extremely high-speeds intended for massive number computations.

Supercomputer Applications:

¢ Used by government exploration agencies, large universities, and major organizations.

¢ Bring applications such as global climate forecasting, armed forces defence systems, computational cosmology and astronomy, microprocessor research and style, large scale data mining, significant time-sharing sites, and so on.

¢ Use seite an seite processing architectures of interconnected microprocessors (which can implement many instructions at the same time in parallel).

¢ Is capable of doing arithmetic measurements at rates of speed of huge amounts of floating-point procedures per second (gigaflops). Teraflop (1 trillion floating-point functions per second) supercomputers, which use advanced massively parallelprocessing (MPP) designs of a large number of interconnected microprocessors, are becoming available. ¢ Price for huge supercomputers are in the $5 million to $50 mil range.

Mini-supercomputers:

The use of symmetrical multiprocessing (SMP) and given away shared memory (DSM) designs of smaller sized numbers of interconnected microprocessors features spawned a breed of mini-supercomputer with rates that start in the thousands of us dollars.

TECHNICAL BE AWARE: THE COMPUTER PROGRAM CONCEPTS ” [Figure 13. 9]

As being a business specialist, you do not need reveal technical understanding of computers. Yet , you do need to understand some fundamental facts and concepts regarding computer systems. This could help you become an informed and productive end user of computer system resources.

A pc is a system, an related combination of pieces that execute the basic program functions of input, digesting, output, storage space, and control, thus featuring end users having a powerful information-processing tool. Understanding the computer as a computer system is essential to the powerful use and management of computers. A computer is a system of hardware devices organised according to the following system functions:

¢ Input. Examples of some insight devices of your computer system include:

1 . Key boards

2 . Contact Screens3. Lumination Pens

4. Electric Mice

4. Optical Scanners

5. Tone of voice Input

They convert data in electronic machine-readable form intended for direct admittance or through a telecommunications network into a computer system.

Processing. The central processing unit (CPU) is the main processing component of some type of computer system. (In microcomputers, is it doesn’t main microprocessor). One of the CPU’s major pieces is the arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) that executes the math and logic functions necessary in computer processing. Pieces of the CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT include:

1 . Control Unit 2 . Arithmetic-Logic Unit a few. Primary Safe-keeping Unit

Result. Convert digital information made by the computer program into human-intelligible form for presentation to end-users.

Examples of outcome devices include:

1 ) Video Screen Units installment payments on your Audio Response Units several. Printers

Storage area. The storage function of your computer system is employed to store info and program instructions needed for processing.

Storage equipment include:

1 . Major Storage Unit (main memory)

2 . Secondary Safe-keeping Devices (magnetic disk and tape devices, optical disks)

Control. The control unit of a CPU interprets pc program guidance and transfers directions for the other aspects of the computer system.

Computer Digesting Speeds:

Operating speeds of pcs are tested in a number of methods. For example: ¢ Milliseconds ” Thousands of an additional.

Microseconds ” Millionths of your second.

Nanoseconds ” Billionth of a second

Picosecond ” Trillionth of any second

Various other terminology employed includes:

Teraflop ” used by a lot of supercomputers

MIPS ” Million instructions per second

Megahertz (MHz) ” A lot of cycles every second

Gigahertz (GHz) ” Immeasureable cycles per second

Clock Acceleration ” accustomed to rate microprocessors by the speed of their time circuits and internal time.

Section II: Computer Peripherals: Input, Outcome, and Storage space Technologies

ADVANTAGES

A computer is a high-powered “processing box without peripherals. Your own personal computing demands will influence the components you select for the particular calculating needs. Examining United Solutions and Eastman Kodak

We are able to learn a whole lot about the company value of consolidating computer system operations and systems from this case. Require a few minutes to see it, and we will discuss it (See Combined Technologies and Eastman Kodak in Section IX).

PERIPHERALS

Peripherals would be the generic name for all suggestions, output, and secondary storage devices which might be part of some type of computer system. Peripherals depend on direct connections or perhaps telecommunications backlinks to the central processing unit of acomputer system. Hence, all peripherals are on-line devices, that is certainly, separate by, but can be electronically linked to and manipulated by, a CPU. This can be the opposite of off-line equipment, which are distinct from and never under the control over the PROCESSOR.

INPUT TECHNOLOGY

There has been a significant trend toward the elevated use of input technologies that offer a more organic user interface pertaining to computer users. More and more data and commands happen to be being joined directly and simply into computers through directing devices like electronic mice and touch pads, and technology like optical scanning, handwriting recognition, and voice recognition.

DIRECTING DEVICES

Keyboards are still the most widely used devices to get entering data and textual content into computers. However , directing devices are a better alternative for providing commands, producing choices, and responding to requires displayed on your own video screen. They work with your functioning system’s gui (GUI), which usually presents you with symbols, menus, windows, buttons, bars, and so on, for your selection. Examples of pointing devices include:

¢ Electronic Mouse button ” A device used to maneuver the cursor on the display screen, as well as to concern commands and make icon and menu selections.

¢ Trackball ” A tool used to approach the cursor on the display.

Pointing Stay ” A small buttonlike system, sometimes compared to the eraser head of your pencil. The cursor techniques in the direction of the pressure you place on the track point. Touchpad ” A small rectangular touch sensitive surface usually placed below the keyboard. The cursor techniques in the direction your ring finger moves on the pad.

Touch Screens ” A device that accepts data input by placement of a finger in or close to the CRT screen.

PEN-BASED COMPUTING

Pen-based computing technologies being used in many hand held computers and personal digital co-workers. These little PCs and PDAs consist of fast cpus and software program that recognises and digitises handwriting, hands printing, and hand sketching. They have a pressure-sensitive layer such as a graphics protect under their very own slatelike water crystal screen (LCD) display screen.

A variety of penlike devices can be obtained:

Digitizer Pen ” A photoelectronic device you can use as a directed device, or used to attract or create on a pressure-sensitive surface of your graphics tablet.

Images Tablet ” A device which allows an end customer to draw or publish on a pressure-sensitive tablet and has their handwriting or design digitised by the computer and accepted while input.

PRESENTATION RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

Speech identification and words response (in their infancy) promise to be the easiest method of data entry, phrase processing, and conversational calculating, since presentation is the least difficult, most natural method of human communication.

Speech recognition systems evaluate and sort speech or vocal tract patterns and convert them into digital codes to get entry right into a computer system. Early voice recognition items used under the radar speech acknowledgement, where you had to pause between each spoken word. Fresh continuous speech recognition (CSR) software recognises controlled, conversationally paced talk. Examples of ongoing speech recognition software consist of: ¢ NaturallySpeaking by Monster Systems

¢ ViaVoice by simply IBM

¢ VoiceXpress by Lernout & Hauspie

¢ FreeSpeech by simply Philips

Areas where presentation recognition systems are used include:

¢ Manufacturers make use of it for inspection, inventory, and quality control

¢ Airlines and package delivery companies use it for voice-directed selecting of baggage and parcels

¢ Voice triggered GPS devices are being used in advanced car design

¢ Physicians make use of it to enter and printout medications

¢ Gemmologists use it to free up their hands the moment inspecting and grading important stones

¢ Handicapped persons use voice-enabled software to use their personal computers, e-mail, and surf the net.

Speaker-independent speech recognition systems allow a computer to comprehend a few terms from a voice they have never read before. They enable pcs to respond to verbal and touch-tone type over the phone.

Examples include:

¢ Computerized call switching

¢ Telemarketing surveys

¢ Bank pay-by-phone bill-paying services

¢ Stock quotations companies

¢ University enrollment systems

¢ Customer credit and account balance requests

OPTICAL SCANNING SERVICES

Optical deciphering devices read text or graphics and convert them into digital input to get a computer. Optic scanning permits the immediate entry of data from resource documents in a computer system.

Well-liked uses of optical checking include:

¢ Scanning web pages of textual content and images into your computer system for computer’s desktop publishing and web submitting applications.

¢ Check out documents into the system and organize these people into directories as part of a document management selection system simple reference or perhaps retrieval. There are many types of optic scanners, but they all employ photoelectric devices to scan the character types being go through. Reflected lumination patterns of thedata will be converted into electronic digital impulses which have been then approved as insight into the personal computer.

Optical checking technology generally known as optical personality recognition (OCR) can read special-purpose characters and codes. OCR scanners prefer read character types and unique codes on:

Merchandise tags

Product product labels

Credit card receipts

Bills

Insurance premiums

Airline tickets

Form mail

Score checks

Method business and government varieties

Devices such as handheld optic scanning wands are used to browse OCR code on items tags and also other media. A large number of business applications involve browsing bar code, a code that uses bars to symbolize characters. One common example is the Common Produce Code (UPC) club coding that you see in packages of food items and many other products.

VARIOUS OTHER INPUT TECHNOLOGY

Magnetic stripe technology is actually a familiar kind of data entry that helps computers read charge cards. The dark magnetic red stripe on the back side of such cards is the same iron o2 coating because on permanent magnetic tape. Smart cards that embed a microprocessor processor chip and several terme conseillé of memory space into charge, credit, and other cards will be popular in Europe, and becoming available in the United States. Digital cameras and digital camcorders enable you to blast, store, and download still photos or full action video with audio with your PC.

Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) is machine recognition of characters branded with magnetic ink. Mostly used for check processing by banking sector.

OUTPUT SOLUTIONS

Computers offer information in a variety of forms. Online video displays and printed papers have been, and still are, the most typical forms of outcome from computer systems. But different natural and attractive end result technologies such as voice response systems and multimedia outcome are significantly found along with video displays in operation applications.

VIDEO OUTPUT

Online video displays would be the most common kind of computer outcome. Most personal pc computers depend on video monitors that use cathode ray conduit (CRT) technology. Usually, the clarity from the video screen depends on the kind of video monitor you use and the graphics circuit board set up in your computer. A high resolution, flicker-free screen is especially essential if you fork out a lot of time observing multimedia on CDs or maybe the Web, or perhaps complex graphical displays of several software packages.

The largest use of liquid crystal shows (LCDs) should be to provide a visual display capacity for lightweight microcomputers and PDAs. FLAT SCREEN displays require significantly less electric energy and provide a skinny, flat screen.

Improvements in technology such as lively matrix and dual check out capabilities have got improved area and clarity of FLATSCREEN displays.

BRANDED OUTPUT

After video exhibits, printed outcome is the most common form of end result displays. Most personal computer devices rely on inkjet or laser beam printers to generate permanent (hard copy) outcome in high-quality published form. Branded output is a common form of business marketing communications, and is often required for legal documentation. ¢ Inkjet printers ” Aerosol ink on to a page single line at a time. They can be popular, cheap printers for microcomputer systems. They are quiet, produce several pages per minute of top quality output, and will print the two black-and-white and high-quality coloring graphics.

Lazer Printers ” Use an electrostatic process similar to a photocopying machine to produce various pages each minute of premium quality black-and-white end result. More expensive color laser printers and multi featured inkjet and laser types that print out, fax, check, and copy are other well-liked choices for organization offices.

STORAGE TRADE-OFFS

Data and info need to be kept after suggestions, during finalizing, and just before output. Computer-based information systems rely mainly on the memory circuits and secondary safe-keeping devices of computer systems to accomplish the storage space function.

Significant trends in primary and secondary storage methods:

¢ Progress in very-large scale the usage (VLSI), which will packs an incredible number of memory signal elements on tiny semiconductor memory poker chips, are responsible to get continuing raises in the main-memory capacity of computers.

¢ Secondary storage capacities are also expected to escalate into the billions and trillions of character types, due mostly to the use of optical

media. Storage Trade-offs: Velocity, capacity, and cost associations.

¢ Notice the cost/speed/capacity trade-offs as you moves coming from semiconductor thoughts to magnet media, such as magnetic hard disk drives and tags, to optical disks.

¢ High-speed storage media will cost more per byte and provide lower capacities.

¢ Large capability storage multimedia cost less per byte tend to be slower

¢ Semiconductor thoughts are used mainly for primary storage space, though they may be sometimes employed as high speed secondary storage space devices.

¢ Magnetic disk and mp3 and optical disk gadgets are used because secondary safe-keeping devices to greatly increase the size of the memory space of computers.

¢ Most principal storage brake lines use RAM (random access memory) chips, which reduce their contents when electricity is interrupted

¢ Secondary safe-keeping devices supply a more long term type of storage area media for storage of information and programs.

Computer Storage Basic principles: [Figure 13. 20]

Info is highly processed and stored in a computer program through the occurrence or lack of electronic or magnetic indicators in the pc’s circuitry in the media it uses. This is called a “two-state or perhaps binary representation of data, since the computer and media may exhibit only two possible states or perhaps conditions ” ON (1) or AWAY (0).

Computer storage elements:

¢ Bit ” is the littlest element of info, (binary digit) which can include a value of zero or perhaps one. The capacity ofmemory potato chips is usually portrayed in terms of pieces.

Byte ” is the basic grouping of bits the fact that computer works as a one unit. That typically consists of 8 parts and is accustomed to represent a single character of information in most laptop coding schemes (e. g. 8 pieces = you byte). The capacity

of the computer’s memory and supplementary storage products is usually stated in terms of octet. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Noticable: EB DISCOVER DICK

Storage area capacities are usually measured in:

Kilobyte

= 1, 1000 bytes

Terme conseillé

= one particular, 000, 500 bytes

Gigabyte

= 1, 000, 500, 000 octet

Terabyte

= 1, 1000, 000, 1000, 000 bytes

Petabyte

= 1, 000, 000, 500, 000, 1000 bytes

Exabyte

= you, 000, 1000, 000, 1000, 000, 000 bytes

Zettabyte

= 1, 000, 1000, 000, 1000, 000, 000, 000 bytes

Yottabyte

= 1, 000, 000, 1000, 000, 500, 000, 500, 000 octet

Direct and Sequential Access

¢ Direct Access ” Primary storage multimedia such as semiconductor memory poker chips are called immediate access or unique access recollections (RAM). Magnetic disk gadgets are frequently referred to as direct access storage area devices (DASDs).

The conditions direct access and random get describe precisely the same concept. They mean that an component of data or perhaps instructions can be directly stored and retrieved by selecting and using one of the locations within the storage mass media. They also signify each safe-keeping position (1) has a unique address and (2) could be individually seen in roughly the same period of time without having to flick through other storage positions.

Continuous Access ” sequential access storage mass media such as permanent magnetic tape you don’t have unique safe-keeping addresses that could be directly addressed. Instead, info must be kept and gathered using a continuous or serial process. Data are recorded one after another in a predetermined series on a storage medium. Discovering an individual item of data needs searching much of the recorded data on the tape until the wanted item is found.

SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY SPACE

The primary storage space (main memory) on most modern day computers consists of microelectronic semiconductor memory circuits. Plug-in storage circuit panels containing 32 megabytes or maybe more of recollection chips could be added to your computer to increase the memory potential. Specialized recollection can help make your computer’s efficiency. Examples include:

¢ External disparition memory of 512 kilobytes to help your microprocessor operate faster

¢ Video images accelerator greeting cards with 16 megabytes of RAM bring faster and clearer video performance

¢ Removable credit-card-size and smaller “flash memory RAM greeting cards provide many megabytes of erasable direct access storage intended for PDAs or hand-held PCs.

Some of the key attractions of semiconductor memory space are:

¢ Tiny size

¢ Quickly speed

¢ Surprise and temp resistance

One key disadvantage of many semiconductor memory space is:

¢ Volatility ” Uninterrupted electric power should be supplied or perhaps the contents of memory will be lost (except withread only memory, which is permanent).

You will discover two simple types of semiconductor storage:

¢ Random Gain access to Memory (RAM) ” these types of memory chips are the most widely used primary safe-keeping medium. Every single memory position can be both equally read and written, therefore it is also called read/write memory. This can be a unpredictable memory.

¢Read Only Memory (ROM) ” Non-volatile arbitrary access memory chips bring permanent storage space. ROM may be read but is not erased or overwritten. Guidelines and applications in major storage may be permanently “burned into the storage cells during making. This long lasting software is also known as firmware. Different versions include PROMENADE (programmable read only memory) and EPROM (erasable programmable read only memory), which is often permanently or temporarily set after make.

MAGNETIC DISK STORAGE

They are the most common types of secondary storage space for modern computer systems. Gowns because they provide fast get and excessive storage capacities at a reasonable cost. Attributes of magnet disks:

¢ Disk drives contain metal disks that are coated on both sides with an straightener oxide documenting material.

¢ Several hard disks are installed together over a vertical base, which typically rotates the disks will be speeds of 3, 600 to 7, six hundred revolutions per minute (rpm)

¢ Access arms between the slightly segregated disks to see and write data on concentric, circular tracks placement electromagnetic read/write heads.

¢ Info are recorded on tracks as tiny magnetized spots to create the binary digits of common computer system codes.

¢ Thousands of bytes can be recorded on every single track, and there are several hundred data tracks on each of your disk surface area, which provides you with huge amounts of storage positions for software and data. Types of Magnetic Disks

There are several types of permanent magnet disk arrangements, including disk cartridges and fixed drive units. Easily-removed disk devices are well-known because they are lightweight and can be accustomed to store backup copies of your info off-line to get convenience and security.

Floppy Disks, or perhaps magnetic hard disk drives, consist of polyester material film hard disks covered with an iron oxide chemical substance. A single disk is installed and moves freely within a protective adaptable or hard plastic jacket, which has access opportunities to accommodate the read/write brain of a hard drive drive product. The 3-1/2-inch floppy drive, with capacities of 1. forty-four megabytes, is the most widely used edition, with a newer Superdisk technology offering a hundred and twenty megabytes of storage. Hard disks combine permanent magnetic disks, get arms, and read/write minds into a covered module. This enables higher speeds, greater data-recording densities, and closer tolerances within a closed, more steady environment. Fixed or detachable disk container versions are available. Capacities of hard drives range from several hundred mega bytes to many gigabytes of safe-keeping.

RAID Safe-keeping

Disk arrays of connected with each other microcomputer hard disks have substituted large-capacity mainframe disk hard drives to provide various gigabytes of online storage area. Known as REZZOU (redundant arrays of impartial disks), they will combine from 6 to more than 100 small hard disks and their control microprocessors into a single unit. Benefits of RAID hard disk drives include:

¢ Provide significant capacities with high access speeds seeing that data is accessed in parallel more than multiple routes from many disks.

¢ Provide fault understanding capability, as their redundant design offers multiple clones of data about several disks. If a single disk does not work out, data could be recovered coming from backup copies automatically stored upon other disks. ¢ Storage area networks (SANs) are high-speed fibre funnel local area sites that can connect many REZZOU units and share their merged capacity through network computers for many users.

MAGNETIC MP3 STORAGE

Magnetic Tape is still being used as a supplementary storage medium in business applications. The read/write heads of magnetic tape drives record data by means of magnetised spots on the iron oxide layer of the plastic-type tape. Magnetic tape equipment include recording reels and cartridges in mainframes and midrange systems, and tiny cassettes or perhaps cartridges intended for PCs.

These devices serve as reduced, but lower cost, storage to supplement magnetic disks to satisfy massive data warehouse and other business storage space requirements. Other major applications for permanent magnetic tape incorporate long-term archival storage and backup storage space for Computers and other devices.

OPTICAL HARD DISK DRIVE STORAGE

Optic disk safe-keeping involves technology, which is based on using a laser beam to

read little spots over a plastic hard drive. The hard disk drives are currently in a position of saving billions of heroes of information.

¢CD-ROM ” One common type of optic disk utilized on microcomputers. They may be used for examine only safe-keeping. Storage is over 600 mega bytes per hard disk drive. This is similar to over four hundred 1 . 44-megabyte floppy hard disks or three hundred, 000 double-spaced pages of text. Info are documented as incredibly tiny pits within a spiral track, and are examine using a lazer device.

Limitation: Recorded data cannot be removed

¢CD-R ” (Compact disk recordable) is another optical hard disk drive technology. It enables computer systems with CD-R disk travel units to record their particular data when on a CD, and then be able to read the data indefinitely. Limitation: Recorded info cannot be erased

¢CD-RW ” (CD-rewritable) optical disk systems have now provided which record and remove data simply using a laser to heat a microscopic point on the disk’s surface. In CD-RW variations using magneto-optical technology, a magnetic coil changes the spot’s reflecting properties from direction to a different, thus documenting a binary one to absolutely no. A lazer device can then read the binary codes around the disk by simply sensing the direction of reflected lumination.

¢DVD ” (Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk) holds from 3. 0 to eight. 5 gigabytes of multimedia data to each side of your compact disk. The large capacities and high- quality images and sound of DVD technology are expected to eventually exchange CD-ROM and CD-RW systems for data storage, andpromise to speed up the use of DVD drives pertaining to multimedia products that can be used in both computer systems and entertainment systems.

¢ DVD-ROM can be beginning to exchange magnetic recording videocassettes to get movies and other multimedia products.

¢ DVD ” RAM is being used for back-up and archival storage data and multi-media files.

Business Applications

One of the major uses of optical hard disk drives in mainframe and mid-range systems is at image processing, where long term archival storage space of traditional files of document pictures must be taken care of. Mainframe and midrange laptop versions of optical disks use 12-inch plastic hard disk drives with capacities of many gigabytes, with up to 20 disks held in jukebox travel units. EARTHWORM ” (Write Once, Browse Many) types of optic disks are more comfortable with store data on the hard disk drive. Although data can only always be stored once, it can be examine an infinite number of times.

One of the major organization uses of CD-ROM disks for personal personal computers is to supply a publishing method for fast access to guide materials in a convenient, small form. For instance ,:

¢ Catalogs

¢ Sites

¢ Manuals

¢Periodical abstracts

¢Part listings

¢Statistical databases of business activity and economic activity Interactive multi-media applications in business, education, and entertainment employing

CD-ROM and DVD AND BLU-RAY disks.

Optical disks are becoming a popular safe-keeping medium for image processing and multi-media business applications and they seem to be a promising replacement for magnetic disks and tape for huge mass storage space capabilities pertaining to enterprise processing systems. Nevertheless , rewritable optic technologies continue to be being enhanced. Also, most optical hard drive devices are significantly sluggish and more pricey (per byte of storage) than magnetic disk equipment. So optical disk devices are not anticipated to displace magnetic disk technology in the near future for many business applications.

IV. SEARCH TERMS AND CONCEPTS ” DEFINED

Binary Rendering:

Associated with the existence or lack of electronic or perhaps magnetic “signals in the pc’s circuitry or perhaps in the media it uses. There are only two possible says or conditions ” occurrence or deficiency. Central Digesting Unit (CPU):

The unit of the computer system that features the circuits that handles the interpretation and setup of instructions. In many computer systems, the CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT includes the arithmetic-logic unit, the control unit, and first storage device.

Computer System:

Computer hardware as being a system of input, processing, outcome, storage, and control components. Thus some type of computer system consists of input and output equipment, primary and secondary storage space devices, the central digesting unit, the control unit within the PROCESSOR, and other peripheral devices.

Computer system Terminal:

Any input/output device linked by telecommunications links to a computer.

Digital Cameras:

Digital cameras and digital video cameras enable you to capture, store, and download continue to photos or perhaps full-motion online video with sound in your LAPTOP OR COMPUTER.

Direct Access:

A method of safe-keeping where every single storage position has a exclusive address and is individually utilized in around the same time frame without having to search through other storage space positions. Data Appliance:

Equipment for consumers to access the Internet.

Laptop:

A tiny portable LAPTOP OR COMPUTER.

Liquefied Crystal Shows (LCD):

Electronic visible displays that form heroes by applying an electrical charge to selected silicon crystals.

Magnetic Disk Storage:

Data storage area technology that uses magnetised spots about metal or plastic hard disks. Magnetic Disk Storage ” Floppy Disk:

Small phonograph record enclosed within a protective cover. It is a trusted form of permanent magnet disk mass media that provides a direct access safe-keeping capability for microcomputer systems. Magnetic Disk Storage ” Hard Disk

Supplementary storage channel; generally nonremovable disks made out of metal and covered using a magneticrecording area. It holds data in the form of magnetised spots.

Magnet Disk Storage ” RAID

Unnecessary array of impartial disks. Permanent magnet disk models that property many interconnected microcomputer hard disk drives, thus featuring large, fault tolerant storage area capacities. Magnetic Ink Personality Recognition (MICR):

The machine acknowledgement of personas printed with magnetic tattoo. Primarily employed for check digesting by the banking industry.

Magnetic Stripe:

A magnetic red stripe card is known as a plastic wallet-size card with a strip of magnetic strapping on one surface area; widely used to get credit/debit greeting cards.

Magnet Tape:

A plastic tape which has a magnetic surface on which data can be kept by picky magnetisation of portions of the surface.

Mainframe Computer:

A larger-size computer, typically which has a separate central processing product, as distinguished from microcomputer and minicomputer systems.

Microcomputer:

A very tiny computer, ranging in size coming from a “Computer on a chip to a tiny typewriter-size product. Microprocessor:

A semiconductor chip with circuitry intended for processing data.

Midrange Computer:

Larger plus more powerful than most microcomputers but are smaller and less strong than the majority of large mainframe computer systems.

Minicomputer:

A small electric general-purpose laptop.

Network Computer:

A new class of microcomputer designed mainly for employ with the Net and Intranets on duties requiring limited or specialized applications and no or minimal disk storage area. Network Hardware:

A type of midrange laptop used to co-ordinate telecommunications and resource writing and deals with large web sites, Intranets, extranets, and client/server networks.

Network Port:

A terminal that depends on network servers due to the software and processing power. Off-line:

Related to equipment or perhaps devices certainly not under control of the central finalizing unit. On the net:

Regarding equipment or perhaps devices manageable of the central processing device. Optical Figure Recognition (OCR):

The appliance identification of printed personas through the use of light-sensitive devices. Optic Disk Storage space:

Technology based on using a laser to see tiny spots on a plastic-type disk. The disks are capable of storing huge amounts of characters details.

Optical Hard disk drive Storage ” CD-ROM:

A great optical hard disk drive technology to get microcomputers offering compact hard disk drives with a memory space of over 500 mega bytes.

Optical Drive Storage ” CD-R:

Compact disk recordable (CD-R) allows computers with CD-R disk drive models to record their own data once on the CD, than be able to read the data indefinitely.

Optic Disk Storage ” CD-RW:

Compact disk rewritable (CD-RW) enables personal computers with CD-RW disk travel units to record and erase info by using a lazer to high temperature a microscopic point for the disk’s surface. Optical Disk Storage ” DVD:

Digital video hard drive or digital versatile disk (DVD) enables computers with DVD hard disk drive drive models to hold from 3. 0 to 8. your five gigabytes of multimedia data on each aspect of a compact disk. Optical Drive Storage ” WORM Drive:

Optical hard drive that allows users to write when, read many times.

Optical Checking:

By using a device (scanner) that verification characters or images and generates all their digital illustrations. Pen-Based Computing:

Tablet-style microcomputers that recognise hand-writing and hand-drawing done by a pen-shaped gadget on their pressure sensitive display screens.

Peripheral Devices:

Within a computer system, virtually any unit of kit, distinct from the central processing unit, that delivers the system with input, output, or storage space capabilities.

Personal Digital Assistant:

Handheld microcomputer devices, which are designed for easy mobile marketing and sales communications and calculating. Pointing Products:

Devices, which enable end users to issue orders or produce choices by moving a cursor on the display, display. Pointing Device ” Electronic digital Mouse:

A small unit that is in electronic format connected to some type of computer and is transferred by hand over a flat surface in order to move the cursor on the video screen in the same direction. Control keys on the mouse allow users to concern commands and makeresponses or perhaps selections.

Directed Device ” Pointing Adhere:

A tiny buttonlike device sometimes compared to the eraser head of your pencil. The cursor goes in the direction of the pressure you set on the monitor point.

Pointing System ” Touchpad:

Can be described as small rectangle-shaped touch-sensitive surface usually placed below the keyboard. The cursor moves in the direction the finger moves on the cushion.

Aiming Device ” Trackball:

A painting tool device emerge a case used to move the cursor on the computer’s display. Primary Storage space:

The key (or internal) memory of a computer. Generally in the form of semiconductor storage. Computer printers:

Equipment that generate hard copy end result such as paper documents or reports. Secondary Storage:

External or perhaps auxiliary hard disk drive that products the primary storage of a computer system.

Semiconductor Memory space:

Microelectronic storage circuitry etched on tiny chips of silicon or other semiconducting material.

Semiconductor Memory ” RAM:

Also known as physical memory or principal storage; form of memory that temporarily contains data and instructions required shortly by the CPU. MEMORY is a unpredictable type of safe-keeping. Semiconductor Storage ” ROM:

Often known as firmware; a memory chip that permanently stores guidelines and info that are programmed during the chip’s manufacture. 3 variations on the ROM computer chip are PROMENADE, EPROM, and EEPROM. ROM is a non-volatile form of safe-keeping. Sequential Gain access to:

A continuous method of holding and retrieving data via a file.

Intelligent Cards:

Cards including debit and credit cards, that have an inserted microprocessor

chip as well as some kilobytes of memory.

Speech Identification:

Immediate conversion of spoken data into electronic form ideal for entry in a computer system. Pledges to be the least difficult, most natural method to get in touch with computers.

Storage Capacity Components:

Units used for memory space and info: bits, bytes, kilobytes (KB), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), terabytes OR TB.

Memory space Elements ” Bit:

A contraction of “binary digit. It might have the value of both 0 or perhaps

1 . Storage Capacity Elements ” Byte:

A sequence of adjacent binary digits controlled on being a unit and usually shorter than a computer phrase. In many computer systems, a byte is a grouping of 8-10 bits that could represent one particular alphabetic or special character or could be “packed with two fracción digits.

Memory space Elements ” Kilobyte (K or KB):

The moment referring to livescribe desktop storage capacity it is equivalent to a couple of to the tenth power, or perhaps 1, 014 in decimal notation.

Storage Capacity Elements ” Megabyte (MB):

One million bytes. More accurately, 2 for the 20th electrical power, 1, 048, 576 in decimal notation.

Storage Capacity Components ” Gigabyte (GB):

One billion dollars bytes. More accurately, 2 towards the 30th electrical power, or one particular, 073, 741, 824 in decimal explication.

Storage Capacity Components ” Terabyte (TB):

One trillion bytes. More accurately, 2 to the 40th electrical power, or 1, 009, 511, 627, 776 in decimal notation.

Storage Media Trade-offs:

The trade-offs in cost, acceleration, and potential of various storage area media.

Supercomputer:

A unique category of huge computer systems which have been the most highly effective available. They are really designed to resolve massive computational problems.

Time Factors:

Devices used for measuring processing speeds: milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds, and picoseconds.

Period Elements ” Millisecond:

A thousandth of a second.

Period Elements ” Microsecond:

A millionth of a second.

Time Elements ” Nanosecond:

One billionth of the second.

Time Factors ” Picosecond:

A single trillionth of a second.

Touch sensitive Screen:

An insight device that accepts data input by placement of a finger in or near the CRT display.

Transaction Terminals:

Terminals used in banks, retail stores, industrial facilities, and other function sites that are used to capture transaction data by their level of origins. Examples are point-of-sale (POS) terminals and automated teller machines (ATMs).

Video End result:

Video displays are the most common type of computer system output.

Volatility:

Memory (such as digital semiconductor memory) that manages to lose its items when electricity is disrupted. Wand:

A handheld optical character recognition unit used for data entry by many people transaction terminals. Workstation:

A computer port or micro- or minicomputer system created to support the job of one person. Also, a highpowered laptop to support the effort of professionals in engineering, science, and other areas that require extensive computing power and images capabilities.

Versus. DISCUSSION CONCERNS

Do you accept the affirmation: “The network is the computer?

What tendencies are developing in the creation and make use of the major types of computer systems?

Do you think that network computers (NCs) will substitute personal computers (PCs) in business applications?

Happen to be networks of PCs and servers producing mainframe computers obsolete?

Whattrends are occurring in the advancement and use of peripheral devices? Why are individuals trends happening?

When would you recommend the use of each of the following:

Network computers

NetPCs

Network ports

Info appliances in operation applications

What processor, recollection, magnetic hard drive storage, and video display capabilities might you require for a personal computer that you would work with for business purposes?

What additional peripheral equipment and capabilities would you wish to have for your organization PC?

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