Virtue ethics Essay
Today the Arms Purchase Commission began public proceedings into what appears to be the biggest corruption scandal in the good South Africa.
Apply the Global Business Standards Codex and explain if and just how the Security Department applied these rules, what they would have done differently if the Questionnaire was applied GLOBAL BUSINESS STANDARDS QUESTIONNAIRE. • Fiduciary Principle (Diligence, Loyalty) • Property Theory (Protection, Theft) • Dependability Principle (Contracts Premises, Commitments) • Openness Principle (Thruthfulness, Deception, Disclosure, Objectivity) • Dignity Principle (Respect pertaining to the Individual, Health insurance and Safety, Level of privacy and Privacy, Use of Force, Associatiation & Expression, Learning & Advancement, Employment Security) • Fairness Principle (Fair Dealing, Good Treatment, Fair Competition, Good Process) • Citizenship Theory (Law & Regulation, Open public Goods, Co-operation with Regulators, Political Noninvolvement, Civic Contribution • Responsiveness Principle (Addressing Concerns, Community Involvement). LEARNING OBJECTIVES (TOPIC 3) Following completion of this topic, it will be easy to: 1 ) Describe the primary ethical ideas and put it on to business scenarios © iStockphoto. com/Dan Bachman HONEST THEORIES 3 periods of all time of values Greek period (500 BC-AD 500) • The man whom performed his duties as being a citizen = good guy • Greeks – “Man is the way of measuring all things” – he decides for himself precisely what is right and wrong • Socrates, Plato and Aristotle emphasised the importance and need for understanding the characteristics of benefits • Stoics emphasised that goodness is natural to man, laws and regulations of values are the laws of character – realistic and thorough to human being reason.
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HONEST THEORIES Medieval period (AD five-hundred – AD 1500) • Attention was given to interior aspect of morality due to distributed of Christianity • Altered Greeks’ watch that ethics is a part of politics • The standard of right and wrong was according to God’s regulation in the Holy book and was against any kind of doubts ETHICAL THEORIES Contemporary period (AD 1500 onwards) • Individualism more important that priests’ preaching and cathedral principles • Human freedom and human being accomplishments essential than the Christian revelation • The difference among right and wrong was subjective, depending on the attitude individuals making the moral thinking ETHICAL PRINCIPLES & HYPOTHESES. • Produced by moral philosophers over decades to distinguish moral from dishonest behaviour • Viewpoints from where guidance can be obtained along the pathway to a decision • Each theory highlights different items in order to reach an ethically correct decision • Theories are directed towards achieving a common group of goals (Ethical principles) HONEST CONCEPTS & THEORIES ETHICS DEFINED The domain of ethics is definitely centrally worried about human FIGURE (the sort of people all of us are) and CONDUCT (how we connect with others) 3 key questions comprise the focus of this domain: 1 . 2 . What is good or bad for humans? What constitutes right or wrong conduct?
3. Just how ought we to live and treat other folks? ETHICS OF CONDUCTS CONSEQUENTIALISM The rightness/wrongness of an actions is determined by its consequences or perhaps results The proper action is the structure: • Helps bring about the greatest delight of the greatest number (maximizes social utility) = Utilitarianism • Generates results that maximise a person’s selfinterest = Ethical Egoism CONSEQUENTIALISM UTILITARIANISM • Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) – Creator of Utilitarianism • Goodness = human health and wellness – what benefits excellent and what harms can be evil • Two ideas of importance: • Pleasure and pain affects our lives • Pleasure makes life more happy and discomfort makes it worse • Energy – net benefits. and usefulness made by an action • An action is right if the work is higher than the sum total of resources produced by any other act • Hedonistic Calculus – system to assess amount of enjoyment and pain that an action produces CONSEQUENTIALISMUTILITARIANISM 7 Criteria – Inquiries Asked 1 ) Intensity – How intense/strong is the pleasure and psychological satisfaction?
2 . Duration – How long will the pleasure last? 3. Certainty – Just how certain am i not that enjoyment will occur? 4. Propinquity – How soon will the pleasure happen? How close to is it? your five.
Fecundity – How most likely is it that the experience may cause more satisfaction in the future? 6. Purity – Is there any kind of pain that accompanies this pleasure? 7. Extent – How many people will be affected?
CONSEQUENTIALISMUTILITARIANISM. • John Stuart Generator (1806-1873) – qualitative separation of delights • Bentham treats most forms of pleasure as the same, whereas Generator argues that intellectual and moral joys (higher pleasures) are superior to more physical forms of delight (lower pleasures) • Mill’s argument is that the “simple pleasures” tend to always be preferred by people who have no experience with high art, and are therefore not in a appropriate position to guage. CONSEQUENTIALISM – ACT AND RULE UTILITARIANISM • Secret Utilitarianism – an action is correct if it adjusts to a group of rules which will produce the greatest balance of enjoyment over soreness • Work Utilitarianism – an action is correct if and only if it produces the greatest harmony of pleasure more than pain for everyone CONSEQUENTIALISM – ETHICAL EGOISM • One’s self is definitely, or must be, the inspiration and the goal of one’s own action • Three categories: person, personal, and universal?
A person ethical egoist would hold that all persons should do what ever benefits them? A personal ethical egoist would hold that he or she should work in his or her self-interest, but would make no promises about what anyone else ought to do? A universal ethical egoist would argue that everybody should work in ways that are in their self-interest CONSEQUENTIALISM All is well that ends well, no matter means utilized to produce outcomes End justifies the means!
NON-CONSEQUENTIALISM DEONTOLOGY • Emphasis on rules, duty, rights • Actions are right in the event they admiration rules and wrong in the event they disobey them • Golden secret – Perform unto others as you may have them perform unto you (human dignity, respect for individuals, obligation, duty) DEONTOLOGY. • Morality and ethics have to be understood because systems of rules designed to govern and guide carry out • Deontological ethical hypotheses are agent-relative as opposed to agent neutral – you have a duty • In the event that an action is of the wrong kind, it is forbidden, no matter how good its outcomes are • Rejects the two Utilitarianism and Ethical Egoism DEONTOLOGY – KANTIANISM • Immanuel Margen (1724-1804) – Ends, not really mere means: don’t deal with rational providers (others or yourself) because mere objects to be used or exploited Categorical imperative – everyone should be treated as a free of charge person corresponding to everyone else (unconditional) Everyone has a moral directly to such treatment and a correlative obligation to treat others in this way Mustn’t sacrifice the few even to advantage the many • • • DEONTOLOGY – KANTIANISM. • Performing an action solely because it is our obligation is what Kant refers to as a fantastic will – being good with out qualification Action only in respect to that maxim by which you are able to at the same time can it that it ought to become a common law of nature – offers uniformity • DEONTOLOGY – NORMAL LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS • Another approach to Deontology and contrasting to Kantianism • All-natural rights:? Right to freedom/ freedom – independence from coercive powerful rulers?
Right to possession and property – every person has a directly to ownership more than own human body and individual labour which is free to determine what will be performed with what he / she owns, with out interference ORGANIC LAW AND HUMAN RIGHTS. • • Moral rights –by virtue of being human Each proper has a matching duty and these obligations may be perfect or not perfect Rights enjoy an important role in business integrity – stakeholders have legal rights Many privileges however enter conflict and it is difficult to determine whose privileges receives top priority (victims or perhaps criminals) • • DEONTOLOGY – RIGHTS AND FAIRNESS • • • Good and equitable distribution of opportunities and hardships to any or all Ask how pretty benefits and costs are distributed to everyone irrespective of power, placement, wealth, etc . Seven groups:? Distributive Proper rights – interested in fair circulation of society’s benefits and burdens?
Cooperation and competition – taking a proper share of good quality? Procedual rights – fair, decisive methods, procedures and agreements between parties DEONTOLOGY – RIGHTS AND FAIRNESS.? Retributive Justice – simply imposition of punishment and penalties after wrong-doers – does the punishment fit the crime? Compensatory justice – compensating persons for failures they have experienced when they had been wronged simply by others – losses because of Apartheid? Corrective justice – laws themselves as tools of rights should be considered because just?
Division – think about who has experienced an unfair share of the costs of the policy and more who have unfairly benefitted coming from a policy RAWLS’ PRINCIPLES OF JUSTICE • All interpersonal values – liberty and opportunities, salary and prosperity, and the bases of self-respect – need to be distributed equally unless bumpy distribution of any, or perhaps all of these ideals, is to everyone’s advantage. Two principles • • Fundamental freedoms – Freedom of speech, freedom and pursuit of happiness Difference principle -There can be inequalities as long as this makes the most severe person better off DEONTOLOGY “The end doesn’t justify the means. ” ETHICS OF CHARACTER ARISTOTELIANISM – VIRTUE APPROACHES • Examines a person’s meaningful character and whether or not this exhibits virtue • Aristotle – a moral virtue is a behavior that enables someone to exercise explanation in all activities • Action of supplying people merchandise they specifically deserve can be justice (virtue) or supplying too little/ too much can be injustice (vice) • Virtues are means to and constituents of joy • Advantage ethics makes being desired an essential element of leading a moral your life SUMMARY ETHICAL THEORIES Practical Model.?
When ever confronted with a great ethical situation: • Recognize alternative methods of action • Determine both equally benefits and harms of every alternative course of action for ALL stakeholders • Many benefits and least problems for the greatest number of individuals? The Functional Model provides a strong capitalistic orientation and supports: • Profit maximisation • Self-interest • Worthwhile hard work Some weakness: Focus • Competition upon outcome rather? Focus of honest behaviour is about: than method which might be • Organisational/ Community Services goals unethical • Efficiency • Conflicts interesting ETHICAL IDEAS Moral Privileges Model?
Once confronted with a great ethical issue: • Discover if virtually any decision or behaviour violates the legal rights of an specific • If this does, it can be wrong Some weakness: Focus only? Focus of moral behaviour is about: on individual • Directly to safety but not societal legal rights • Directly to know the real truth • Directly to privacy • Right not to engage in behaviours that are contradictory to a person’s moral or perhaps religious philosophy • Right to freedom of speech? Supplies clear rules on ethical individual privileges ETHICAL HYPOTHESES Justice Style?
When confronted with an honest dilemma: • Identify in the event that any decision or actions violates the rights of both individuals and groupings • If this does, it truly is wrong? Concentrate of the three guidelines: • Distributive Justice Rule? Everyone should be treated similar, unless they will differ in manners which are reliant to the situation • Fairness Principle?
Responsibilities as a result of relationships • Natural Duty Theory? Accepting responsibility in exchange for many rights Virtually any questions?