victimology essay


Stand of items


– Definition of Secondary Victimisation

– Supplementary Victimisation in the court process

– Article

– Discussion of article

– Realization

P. three or more

l. 3

p. several

l. 4

p. six

s. 6


– Introduction

– Definition

– Patients rights when it comes to victim effects statements

And the legal provision designed for them in South Africa

– Conclusion

p. several

g. 7

p. 7


l. 9

a couple of

p. 7

l. 8


Definition of Secondary victimisation”

Secondary victimisation can be defined as the insensitive, victim-blaming attitudes, behaviors and procedures held simply by institutions and community service providers resulting in additional trauma for an previously traumatised sufferer of criminal offense, especially for those who find themselves victims of a sexual offense such as rape or molestation.


Extra victimisation inside the court method

Confirming a crime and going through the criminal proper rights process is often where supplementary victimisation starts off when credit reporting a intimate offence towards the police, the victim is often left feeling exposed and somewhat uncomfortable about what took place. The sufferer is inundated with many inquiries and conventional paper work and they receive almost no emotional support.

The victim may possibly feel that he/she has to re-experience the criminal offenses. This can be really overwhelming for the victim and intensifies the trauma.

In many cases the sufferer is frustrated by members of the family to possibly report the crime, not to mention lay expenses (UNISA Analyze Guide for CMY3705, p71) The victim may feel that he/she provides little support and is remaining feeling isolated and alone. Getting the case to court docket is a long, sluggish and disorganised process and an extremely frustrating one particular at that. The victim usually wants to find the whole process over and done with at the earliest opportunity so that he/she can come to terms with all the traumatic function and go forward with their lives. If the case sooner or later does end up in court the victim might feel confused by the strange and unfamiliar environment through the fact that he/she would not have considerable knowledge of the court procedure; it is most very not familiar and very overwhelming.

Quite often the victim is usually not advised why they is being asked certain inquiries and is not really kept up to date on the improvement of the research or the trial. All of these elements intensify the trauma the victim is experiencing. (UNISA Study Information for CMY3705, p71)

A huge contributing component to the fact that particular institutions may cause secondary victimisation is the deficiency of knowledge or perhaps the holding of certain philosophy pertaining to afeitado or intimate crimes. Many people may acknowledge certain types of misguided beliefs and stereotypes about afeitado which leads them to treating the victim insensitively. (http://rapecrisis.org.za/).



Women’s Month: One in Nine Advertising campaign:

The 1 in 9 plan started out focusing on the one woman in seven who information being raped, but offers moved on to try include the different eight survivors, says Kwezilomso Ndazayo.  Anyone who used the Jacob Zuma afeitado trial 5 years ago soon became familiar with the sight of groups of girls outside the courtroom, wearing violet t-shirts and bearing placards calling for rights.

“The marketing campaign was born there, because the girl who had placed the impose was one of our clients and we supported her, ” explains Kwezilomso Ndazayo, project police officer for the campaign. “The research demonstrates only one woman in eight will take a rape circumstance to the legal justice system – all of us realized that individuals who dared of talking out necessary our support. “

For several women, the price tag on seeing a rape case through the criminal justice product is just too high – specifically as dedication rates are extremely low. “Many women say that the courtroom process makes it feel as if they can be being raped again. This kind of secondary victimization often commences from the tiny they turn up to a authorities station or perhaps hospital, particularly if they are coming from a marginalized group including lesbians or perhaps poor functioning class girls. The certainty rate is very appalling that many survivors see no reason for subjecting themselves to a process that can have five years, if they may have no faith in getting a conviction. “

Part of the issue is the “innocent victim” talk often played out in the media, in which any girl who is a lesbian, HIV positive, whom drinks alcohol or has ever engaged in consensual sex is seen as blameworthy and not deserving of admiration and consideration, not to mention proper rights. “For model, there has been a whole lot of analysis looking at how violence against women puts them vulnerable to contracting HIV. Now we are looking at this from another angle: how exactly does being HIV positive place women vulnerable to violence? “

Kwezilomso according to the Zuma case raised numerous issues regarding HIV, libido and tradition and helped members in the campaign to find out that not simply should they continue but that they can needed to broaden their approach. “Just because the other ten women don’t follow the justice system course, it doesn’t mean they are not speaking in other ways. “

In a world that has normalized the unusual and which will appears complacent about the extraordinarily higher level of assault against women and children, the members in the campaign happen to be determined to hold speaking out. “Its critical that we having voices that period out this is not an acceptable point out for women being living in. Additionally, it helps remainders by affirming that this can be not regular. At the same time our company is aware of the outcomes of women speaking truth to power and are also careful to never endanger users of the advertising campaign. “


One in 9 is a member-based campaign that does advocation in a variety of ways, via running Youthful Women’s Command programmes throughout the provinces, to courses with all the CDP upon Art as Advocacy in which women generate their own advertising campaign materials including t-shirts and banners. “We are currently obtaining a guide created for rasurado survivors by simply survivors. This is important, as most additional guides happen to be written by scholars or active supporters and workers, but just survivors who may have themselves have been through the system can tell all of them what to expect. “

Kwezilomso likewise points out that although the felony justice strategy is the most obvious mark of the inability to protect women, there are many other sites of power that have an impact about women’s lives, ranging from Parliament to the wellness system to the police force. “The state needs to be held responsible for issues just like the backlog in the justice system, and we motivate active nationality to ensure that duty bearers do what they are intended to. But the whole system is piled against girls. “Even in the event that there was a different government in office, similar system would remain. The state is a device of control, to put persons in their place and close them up. The bigger question is the way you transform world, from the bottom up to the maximum office in the land. “

The of sixteen Days of Activism campaign has come in for a whole lot of critique, and some activists believe it has been hijacked by simply government and does little although provide advertising opportunities pertaining to ministers who promptly forget about the issues arrive January.

“Perhaps as a sector we need to take more time assessing the effect of the 16 Days, nevertheless I more than likely call for that to be abandoned entirely. Certainly there are almost certainly too many extravagant dinners, but each system provides all of us an opportunity to employ and try to make positive alter. And if the size of some of these events is challenging, then we have to use the opportunity to shine a light-weight on that. The good thing about of sixteen Days is the fact it provides the issues out into the open and enables people a space to start referring to them. “

Despite the activism of many campaigners, rates of violence against women and kids in S. africa continue to rise. When we have accelerating legislation and a one of the best Constitutions in the world, it seems the society is out of step with the values it professes to support.

Is there a foreseeable future for these advertisments? “Obviously this is not going to change overnight, and perhaps in 50 years time South Africa will be a better place for ladies and children. But that does not mean we have to stop trying. It is significant that we still speak and stay heard and be sure that Southern Africans fully grasp this is not the kind of world they want to stay in. “




Discussion of the content

This content provides a best example of how come secondary victimisation takes place in court.  As mentioned, the criminal rights system frequently fails rape victims due to the low confidence rate plus the insensitive way the victims are treated. The result is that lots of victims are discouraged to report rasurado cases due to the fact that they think they are if she is not heard and they are being treated with little dignity and esteem. If this was not the case presently there would most probably be a rise in reports bringing about a higher confidence rate.

The rights of victims are being abused and undermined by the lawbreaker justice program and it is kept up to non-public organisations and NGO’s to manage these patients. It is a sad state of affairs plus the responsibility of protecting the rights of victims should be shifted returning to the lawbreaker justice system. That is just how it should have already been from 1!


From the discussion above it can be obvious that drastic steps need to be ingested in order to increase the criminal proper rights system to such an magnitude that secondary victimisation is usually cut down down.

Victims of sexual criminal activity or any offense for that matter should not have any doubt inside their minds the fact that criminal rights system is in place in order to assist them in their times of need and should feel safe and approved while dealing with the process of the criminal proper rights system.

I think this process will start as soon as we have a general change in the perspective and point of view that the people of these institutions hold.




It has been contested whether or not a victim of crime should participate in the criminal prosecution process of course, if so to what extent they can be allowed to take part. In South Africa, legal dotacion was made pertaining to victim influence statements because for however, most educated professional, it can be impossible to fully comprehend what the victim could be experiencing and the amount of suffering that the victim has to endure. This was pointed out by the South Africa Law Commission rate (2002: 68). (UNISA Research Guide pertaining to CMY3705, s. 77)


“A victim effects statement is known as a written or perhaps oral affirmation made as part of the judicial legal process, that allows a patient of crime the opportunity to speak during the sentencing of their attacker or for subsequent losung hearings. In most cases videotaped transactions are permitted. “


A victim impact statement is usually document that is certainly written by the victim explaining in their personal words what they experienced during the time that the crime was being dedicated against these people. A patient in this case likewise refers to the indirect patients such as close family members from the victim or perhaps an eye witness.

Victims’ rights in terms of impact claims and the legal provision for them in South Africa

Recently, the main target of any kind of criminal rights system was going to determine if the suspect of a crime was guilty or not and even more often than not the constitutional legal rights of victims were overlooked during this method. Gradually this kind of began to modify and the pursuing rights were awarded to South Africa and they are fully covered in the Cosmetic of The Republic of South Africa Act 1008 of 1996 in chapter two:

 Right to defense against harm

 The justification to be advised of court docket proceedings

 The right to be advised about entente

 The right to learn of losung hearings

 The justification to the prompt return of property


Along with these rights, victims were also granted the right to take part in the criminal prosecution process by providing their own accounts of their encounters in the form of a victim effects statement. Legal provision was made for patient impact transactions when the Southern region African Legislation Commission recommended the addition of a clause on victim impact claims in both oral or written type in the Sentence Framework Bill with the selected reservations:

Bottom line

A victim impact statement is visible as a way to empower victims and offer them a feeling of purpose through the criminal criminal prosecution process. This allows those to put into expression exactly what they can be experiencing in many levels. It is a extremely important part of the prosecution process as it may determine whether or not the accused will be sentenced in addition to the length of the sentence.

In my personal opinion I feel that a sufferer impact declaration is the most vital oart in the prosecution method.





http://www.shukumisa.org.za/index.php/2011/08/womens-month-one-in-ninecampaign/ UNISA Study Guide for CMY3705, p71


UNISA Study Information for CMY3705, p. seventy seven




  • Category: society
  • Words: 2472
  • Pages: 9
  • Project Type: Essay