typhoon katrina article
Hurricane Katrina can be considered to be one of the most severe catastrophe which has been recorded being a national devastation by the federal government of the United states of America. This kind of disaster took place in the new Orleans levees, which are destroyed over and above recognition. While result of this kind of Hurricane of Katrina catastrophe many people lost their lives and properties worth millions of money were demolished. This Katrina Hurricane took place in August 28th of the season 2005. New Orleans levees have a good historical qualifications, but in standard they were created for the purpose of handling flood inside the southern associated with Louisiana.
This Katrina hurricane around the Orleans levees has been viewed as the one from the devastating and worst executive error on the globe history ever recorded (Lawrence H, 55-70). This newspaper tries to reveal the historic perspective of the New Orleans levees, their particular importance to the society, the reasons why these levees failed to control the water damage problems might be the Katrina hurricane.
At the same time this paper will bring out the precaution measures which were brought out by the government to improve the framework of these levees so as to prevent such problems in future.
The newest Orleans levees which are located in the the southern area of state of Louisiana have a long term background. Initially these levees were constructed by the French federal government who will be consequently considered to be the owners of these levees. At the same time we were holding later on regulated by the Spanish govt and later upon they were acquired by the United States of America federal government who happen to be in control current. The government of the United States of America has as tried to enhance the status of those levees so as to protect any destruction which is constantly caused by the gross annual hurricanes in the state.
New Orleans may be traced because back as the year of 1718 in order to was founded by French govt with the guidance of jen-babtiste. The New Orleans location was being considered as one of many commercial hub since it was strategically located as well as, the slot transport utilized by many groupe for the transportation from the raw materials to their countries. This web site was quite simply selected for the construction of the levees because that internet site was situated on the high floor compared with various other natural areas.
It was actually situated on the lower Mississippi river which was constantly flooding. At the same time this kind of place was selected intended for the construction of the levees because it was located adjacent to the trading port which was located between Pond Mississippi and pontchartrain. This city was actually considered as the colonial associated with those times. It has been documented that on the of 1718, when this city was made, the typhoon struck this kind of orlean city although it never caused very much destruction (Marshall Bob, 15-32).
This generated the break down of most of the structures in the city. Consequently the supervision responded simply by constructing a grid which can be observed current. At the times of the detrimental wars in the south says of Louisiana the levees were frequently destroyed simply by those who had been participating in the wars which usually had arose as a result of ethnicity discrimination in the state. Consequently these levees took a lot of time for their renovation as people lacked finances for right now there reconstruction.
Consequently the delta water will certainly constantly over-flow and create a lot of water damage. This led to reduction with the economic position of the condition as a result of the reduced duty correction. Due to the detrimental wars the levees had been abandoned. Yet at the same time the levee supervision system was reconstructed back in of 1866. This levee administration was empowered by the government to perform regular repair of the levees and at the same time research on the permanent solution in order to control the future floods in general.
In the year of 1867 generally there occurred the worst overflow in history which will stripped lines of levees which were so expensive to create by time. These levees were not lso are build in which year. Therefore in the year of 1871 another flood occurred which required the government to ascertain a private organization to control the flooding inside the state. This provider was referred to as Louisiana Levee Company. The organization was actually established by a special subscription which decided the company to control floods pertaining to the period of twenty one years.
Although this provider started to carry out its obligations many levee breaks were not reconstructed and this made the state to experience constant water flood which triggered much gross annual loss of properties and decrease of the earnings collection (Westbrook Jesse 53). Most of the levee break up used to occur because of improper basis preparation. Subsequently the abandons were not made up to standard because the installers wanted to have got cheaper construction rate. During this period weeds grew in the levees. For situations the levees were applied as roads.
Houses had been sometimes built on top of these types of levees. But since time went some legal guidelines laws had been enacted to prevent the levees from becoming misused. The Louisiana Levee Company was later removed by the federal government due that s poor performance and the state of Louisiana decided to a approach to local levee systems that has been responsible for the levee building in their comarcal area. After in the year of 1874, the congress designated a military commission to establish the permanent solution toward this water damage problem (Westbrook Jesse 53).
This resulted in the creation of the Mississippi River Percentage which suggested the prevention of the erosion and caving with the levees. Even though the step to enhance the Orleans levees, it had been seen as a futile step since some levees in the Illinois were not created in to standard hence bringing about frequent exceessful flow of water towards the south. At this twenty one century, the Mississippi has started a tendency of changing that s study course into the Fresh Orleans containing caused wonderful navigation problem. When the Katrina hurricane came about in the New Orleans a lot of damages occurred as the levees were not able to prevent this kind of a strong storm.
This has been attributed by the two geographical elements, the construction factors and the strength of the storm (Grace Full 71-75). Even though the location of the Orlean is considered as being a geographically impressive site, because it is situated at the entrance of river Mississippi, this site is not beneficial for the resistance a vast amount of flooding. This area is so swampy and it is located where the Mississippi river enters it t water to the Gulf. The main parts of the modern Orleans are located on the all-natural levees from the river Mississippi which has a silt soil.
This soil can be not organization and hence would not stand the strong storm such as regarding the Katrina. Between the rivers, there is a back again swamp which usually lacked firm base, hence throughout the rain time; there occurred a lot of flooding. The majority of the New Orleans levees were build on the muck area which weren’t getting the firm base hence masking the levees so week during the time of the hurricane. The place of New Orleans is at the reduced sea level which made it to be overloaded easily by the rain water brought by the large winds. The soil from the New Orleans could sometimes sink as it was not solid.
The large destruction during the Typhoon times, even though may have been contributed by a lot of factors, the problems of the levee architectures need to be blamed. In respect to Cruz (83-90), the engineers whom constructed all those levees triggered much break down. The New Orleans levees can be regarded as one of the engineering problem ever in the history. The engineers had poor development policies which are attributed by the poor designs. The size of them of the levees was brief hence they were topped with water hence destroying the foundations with the levees.
Through the construction of such levees, community safety had not been taken to account and hence certainly not making them stronger. Since the Fresh Orleans town is doze feet underneath the sea level, the levees were in danger. During that time the Hurricane of Katrina flowed straight through the islands and the storm waves damaged the lake severely. In addition the massive rain which stuffed the canal up to the best, which down the line affected the hurricane as well as the levees in particular. The strength of the storms in the hurricane can be seen as the reason why the levees probably would not resist the destruction (Henry Righter, 105-107)
After the Katrina Hurricane in the New Orleans, the government features taken many measures to rebuild the levees to be able to prevent any future devastation of houses and human being lives in basic. During that time the Bush administration received seven million dollars from the Usa congress intended for the repairing of the levees covering a distance of 350 mls. This measure was targeted at protecting the residents of New Orleans against the floods which would at times extend to the lake of Pontchartrain as well as the gulf of Mexico in particular (John Smith, 83-90).
At the same times the us government has started to fund the tasks aimed at rebuilding some places which were identified as wet royaume, which will help to absorb the flooding waters preventing the hurricanes from arriving to the city. Most of the Katrina injuries have been mended by the government. At the same time the damaged levee walls include currently been replaced with the T-walls that are stronger. Therefore the changeover areas inside the levees have been completely streghtened. A large number of flood walls have been developed. The height from the flood entrance has been elevated in height to prevent further over flow
In conclusion the Hurricane of Katrina may be regarded as among the catastrophic catastrophes in the history of the United States of America. The modern Orleans levees have got historic origins. What causes large destruction can considered to be of originated due to the executive errors as well as the strength in the storms. Works cited: Lawrence H.
Roth. ‘Effects of Hurricane of Katrina’, Oxford; Oxford university press; 2004. Marshall, Joe. ’17th Street Canal Levee was condemned: Times-Picayune’. 15-22. Westbrook, Jesse. ‘Katrina Promises May Compete with $16 Billion North ridge Quake. ‘ Bloomerang, 2005. Sophistication King: ‘New Orleans the spot and the Persons. ‘ Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 95. Henry Rightor. ‘Standard Good New Orleans’, New York; New york city university press, 2000. Ruben Smith Kendall. ‘History of New Orleans. ‘ Washington; Oxford University Press, 2002.
- Category: science
- Words: 1873
- Pages: 7
- Project Type: Essay
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