teratology and teratogens congenital malformations


Cystic Fibrosis, Fetal Liquor Syndrome, Prenatal Development, Toxicology

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Determine the term Teratology

Teratology refers to the study of irregular fetal development. Teratogenic prenatal exposures arise from: infectious agents, substance and medicine agents, metabolic or mother’s causes (such as phenylketonuria and diabetes), and physical agents (such as temperature, ionizing the radiation, and mechanised factors) (Jelinek, 2005). Inbred abnormalities occur commonly, with 2-3% babies, both live and dead at birth, as well as aborted fetuses having structural abnormalities. Furthermore, regarding 10% of infants possess internal practical deficits or anomalies that might not be perceptible at birth, and may only surface down the road. Congenital abnormalities can be grouped into: (1) Malformations, which usually denote within normal progress transpiring from an inherent development-process abnormality; (2) Deformations, which arise due to an abnormal mechanical pressure upon a fetus which can be otherwise typical (e. g., clubfoot in an environment of oligohydramnios); and (3) Disruptions, occurring due to disturbance in normal procedure for growth (for instance, gastroschisis, considered to be caused by vascular disruption in the frontal abdominal wall membrane of the fetus) (Adam, Polifka Friedman, 2011).

1 . Explain the Effects of various teratogens during different times of development


Risk category

Fetal effects

Embrionario risks

Maternal risks

Approved or illegal drugs

Ethanol6, 8, 18-20


Fetal Alcohol Results (FAEs): microcephaly, intrauterine progress retardation (IUGR), mental retardation (MR), attribute facies, skin, skeletal, joint, Congenital heart disease (CHD)

40% risk

6 drinks per day

Cocaine6, 8, 18


IUGR, bowel atresia, cerebral infarction, vascular, heart, cosmetic, limb, genitourinary tract dysfunction

Death of fetus

Abruption placentae



Toluene embryopathy, which is similar to Embrionario Alcohol Problem

10-100 times inhalation by mother Work-related exposure


Tetracycline6, almost 8, 18


Deciduous tooth discoloration, teeth enamel hypoplasia

Risk during second and third trimesters



Rare hearing loss with Protracted direct exposure in substantial doses

Risk mainly during second and third trimesters

Fluconazole6, almost 8, 21


Cleft taste, Brachycephaly

CHD, arthrogryposis

Risk during first trimester

Cocecidiodomycosis treatment, high dose

Trimethoprim-sulam ethoxazole8

Reduced conjugation of bilirubin

Third trimester


Folic Chemical p

Antagonist6, several, 18


Increased sudden abortion, stillbirth, ectrodactyly, skeletal abnormalities, craniofacial abnormalities, limb reduction deformities, neonatal fatality, IUGR

thirty percent risk in the event that exposure is first trimester (methotrexate) conceivable increased risk when exposed during first trimester





Alkylating agents6, almost 8


IUGR, cleft taste buds, microphthalmia, genitourinary anomalies, limb reduction deformities





(hydantoin)6, 8, 18, twenty-two


MR, microcephaly, IUGR, heart, facial, hypoplastic distalphalanges / fingernails, increased risk of neuroblastoma

30% exposure impact 10% problem

Genetic cosmetic impacts metabolic rate.

Carbamazepine6, almost 8, 18, 22


Lumbosacral neural conduit defect (1%), microcephaly, cosmetic, nail hypoplasia, developmental hold off, IUGR

Initially trimester direct exposure

Valproic acid6, 8, 18, 22


Lumbosacral neural tube problem (1%), likely fetal valproate syndrome

Initially trimester direct exposure

Mother’s drug metabolismalters risk

Trimethadione6, eight, 18


IUGR, cleft lip plus/minus cleft palate, mental retardation, microcephaly, facial, limb, ophthalmologic, genitourinary

60 per cent to 80% risk by simply exposure during first trimester




ADVISOR inhibitors6, almost eight, 18, 3

(enalapril, captopril, lisinopril)


IUGR, oligohydramnios, pulmonary hypoplasia, renal tubular dysplasia, joint contractures (30%), fetal morbidity

Increased risk by direct exposure during second and third trimesters

Large metals/


Lead6, almost 8, 18, 33

Reduced growth of fetus

Improved risk of natural abortion


mercury6, almost 8, 18

MISTER, Cerebral atrophy, spasticity, microcephaly, blindness, seizures

Exposure during any trimester


Intrauterine development constraint, retarded expansion, dermal coloring

Neurotoxicity in mother with grain and fish toxins


Lithium6, 8, 18, 25


Neonatal CHD (Ebstein anomaly), increased neuromuscular and nervous system (CNS) issues no associated birth defects reported (Paxil: 2% cardiac malformations), small , adjustable fetal effects, no risk proven

SSRI6, 8, 18, 26-31


Benefit/Risk with admonitory advice




antidepressants8, 32


Bupropion8, twenty two



Methyl blue6


Intraamniotic exposure associated with probable bowel atresia

Is determined by dose

Warfarin6, 8, 18, 37, 37



Microtia, heart failure, microphthalmia, nose hypoplasia, craniofacial, cleft lip plus/minus cleft palate, IUGR, stippledepiphyses, CNS, ophthalmologic, expansion retardation

five per cent to 25% risk simply by exposure in first trimester

Bacteria6, 18, 39


Severe: fetal death, hydrops mild: bone tissue, skin, or perhaps teeth malocclusions neonatal: break outs, rhinitis, pneumonia, thrombocytopenia, hard working liver dysfunction

Early penicillin therapyaverts congenital disease complex prognosis / therapy


Rubella6, 18, 45-47

Deafness, Microcephaly, CHD, MR, cataracts

Several deficits may not be clear in neonatal stage

Primary illness

First trimester 50%

Second trimester 6% congenital

Desk 1 . (Adopted from Wilson, 2007)

Physique 1 . Schematic Illustration of critical periods in human being prenatal creation (Adopted by Jelinek, 2005).

3. Explain Principles of teratology

Rule 1: Teratogenesis susceptibility is dependent on conceptus genotype as well as its environmental interaction. Taking into account noted facts regarding the impact of established teratogen exposure, it is evident that two among the most significant teratogen characteristics are: variable phenotype production in infants whom are subjected and impacted by them; and variable susceptibility, exposure would not necessarily mean the newborn will be afflicted (Finnell, 1999).

Principle 2: Teratogen susceptibility depends upon the fetal expansion stage exactly where exposure occurs. A fundamental neurological principle is that organisms inside the development condition are more susceptible to change when compared to full-grown, mature organisms. That may be, heightened susceptibility continues all through the embryo’s advancement, though the level of susceptibility may vary (Finnell, 1999; Sadler, 2012).

Rule 3: Teratogens act through specific means on developing tissues and cells, which provides rise to pathogenesis or perhaps abnormal embryogenesis. They usually represent the primary event among a succession of more advanced events transpiring from trigger to impact. This initially event has become the most crucial in the series, as it links cause with future physiologic changes as well as (probably) impact these kinds of changes’ characteristics (Finnell, 1999).

Principle 5: Abnormal progress eventually manifests in useful disorder, development delay, fatality, and malformation. The above likely outcomes of irregular fetal development do not have equal probability of occurrence and most likely be connected to exposure timing in relation to embryonic development. Nevertheless one or each one of these results may well transpire through exposure to sufficient levels of fetotoxic agents during high sensitivity periods, there is greater probability of occurrence of certain manifestations at particular stages of development (Finnell, 1999; Sadler, 2012).

Principle 5: A harmful environmental agent’s entry to embryonic tissues is dependent on the agent’s characteristics: Every teratogen does not reach the unborn child in a related fashion. Ultrasound, microwaves, x-rays and other this sort of physical brokers move unchanged into the single mother’s uterus and directly gain access to the embryo. On the other hand, taken in agents (such drugs) happen to be first confronted with the mom’s metabolism; their particular fetal gain access to is second. Consequently, prescription drugs or chemical substances normally reach the growing fetus in smaller concentrations than all their original attention in the single mother’s body. Whether their attentiveness in the baby is sufficient to give rise to problems depends on several factors (Finnell, 1999)

Principle 6th: Abnormal developing manifestations increase in their level with increase in dosage, by no-effect level to fatal level: Relating to teratogens and their activity, there exists a link between dosage and response, much like for prescription drugs and curative effect. Taking into consideration this basic principle is imperative, since it determines the thresholds for different toxicologic outcomes (Finnell, 1999; Sadler, 2012).

some. Describe genetic causes of congenital malformations

Genetic sources of congenital deformities come about through genetics; genetics’ role in congenital deformities’ etiology are; Chromosomal aberrations, Monogenic inheritance, Pleomorphic / Polygenic inheritance, and Epigenetics, and the like (Jelinek, june 2006; Adam ain al., 2011).

Monogenic inheritance: There are some congenital deformities acquired as monogenic characteristics. Numerous genes’ mutations are associated with particular inborn abnormalities. MIM or Mendelian Inheritance in Man presents references regarding this. It is better to diagnose and manage innate counseling in the prenatal stage (Adam ain al., 2011).

Polygenic gift of money implies that several genes impact the given phenotypic characteristic (anomaly, disease, and so forth ), although multifactorial gift of money implies that genetic as well as environmental agents affect the given trait. In practice, differentiating between your two types of inheritance is sometimes hard; the phrase ‘multifactorial’ is definitely, thus, typically utilized (Adam et al., 2011).

Unnatural gene-clusters taken over generations cause inherited genetic concerns such as buff dystrophy, cystic fibrosis and phenylketonuria. Spontaneous mutations in genes result from DNA duplication errors, creating base replacement unit or bottom pair deletion/insertion from GENETICS. The cause of somatic genetic condition is the sudden appearance of the gene in deviant contact form somewhere within the body (such while cancer). Finally, chromosomal aberrations bring about chromosomal structure anomalies (e. g., Down’s syndrome) (Adam ou al., 2011).

5. Illustrate the Prenatal diagnostic methods used in determining congenital anomalies

Prenatal medical diagnosis can be done through two essential types of methods, invasive (Fetoscopy, Amniocentesis, Cordocentesis, Fetal biopsy, Chorionic villus sample (CVS)), and non-invasive (Magnetic resonance, Biochemical screening (with use of test of the mother), Ultrasound) (Adam et approach., 2011; Sadler, 2012).

A common invasive strategy is Amniocentesis, competent of obtaining an amniotic fluid test, including amniocytes. These cellular material may be produced for cytogenetic examination. QF-PCR can be used to get acquiring primary outcomes (for the most common of trisomies) within a span of two days (instead of two weeks, as is necessary for karyotype and cultivation). It is also possible to perform early amniocentesis (i. e., sooner than usual, inside the 14th, instead of 16th, week). But satisfactory amount of amniotic substance will not be obtained (Jones, 2005; Sadler, 2012).

CVS can be utilized quite shortly (i. at the., after 10 gestational weeks), enabling timely diagnosis. There exists, however , restricted placental mosaicism (CPM)

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