stock valuation term paper


Carbonilla Systems, Inventory, Stock Market, Oligopoly

Excerpt via Term Newspaper:

Valuation of Stock

Cisco Devices

The stock valuation job calls for the choosing of your stock, and I have picked Cisco Systems. This company is usually traded for the NASDAQ under the ticker mark of CSCO. I wanted to decide on a stock that is an important section of the business environment. I wanted a rise stock, and looked to technology, although I as well wanted to choose something that was obviously a bit under the radar. Cisco fits that bill as it does not sell to consumers, although mainly to other technical companies. In that sense, Cisco is a bellwether stock for the whole technology business.

General Information of the Overall economy

The general economic climate is in a state of economic downturn. The downturn began in 2007-2008 when the financial crisis surfaced. This triggered a credit crunch, and then task losses. Lack of employment and concern saw the reduction of the overall health in the economy. Since that point, recovery has been gradual, but it is usually an ongoing process. There are certainly those who think that the recovery should have recently been faster. A very important factor, though, would be that the technology industry is affected somewhat differently than the overall economic climate. The period that coincides together with the economic slowdown also coincides with the mobile phone revolution and rapid application of cell phones. So some technology firms have gained tremendously in that period. Cisco’s end users are likely more to become businesses, either directly on with the products that they sell that rely on Cisco technology. Therefore , Carbonilla struggled through the downturn mainly because business spending was very low. The company performed remain profitable during this time period.

The market in which Carbonilla operates is definitely populated simply by large and powerful firms with large levels of technology and funds. Conditions will be either oligopoly or monopolistic competition. Businesses often signal contracts for service with their customers to make sure more steady revenue streams. Firms carry out have individual sales too. For a marketing company, there is competition regarding how complete the service that they give is. Gresca occupies a niche within this industry that is greatly focused on marketing.

In general, Carbonilla is a high growth company. It has solid products such as switches and routers, so it is connected with network. This means that Carbonilla has been damaged not only by simply business spending, but favorably by the surge of mobile. Growth leads for Cisco are good. The company only started paying a dividend in 2011. The strengths of Cisco happen to be with its products, its brands, its consumer networks as well as strong financial position. If it provides any disadvantages, they are typically with diversity, since Gresca has long been a specialized person in social networking solutions rather than more extensive technology company in the way that competitors just like Hewlett Packard and APPLE are (Duffy, 2010).

The Dividend Low cost Model

For a high progress company like Cisco, a multistage gross discount style can be used. In principle, the dividend low cost model assumes that investors seek inbuilt value, that is the present value of expected future money flows. Intended for stocks, meaning both returns and capital gains. The multi-stage version of this model attempts to build in expansion at multiple stages, where growth takes place at diverse rates. Gresca is certainly not in the early stages of very high expansion, but can get to grow strongly for few years as networking turns into more common. Ultimately, Cisco will start to mature. Returns will be a bigger part of their returns at that time in time. For Cisco Devices, therefore , it is advisable to use a two-stage growth unit, but a three-stage unit allows for even more refined computation. The first step in this really is to use the administrative centre asset costs model to derive the discount price. The risk totally free rate is definitely 0. 15% according to the Treasury, for a six-month paper. The beta pertaining to Cisco Systems is 1 ) 23. Plugged into the style spreadsheet thus giving the following cost of capital T

Risk Free Rate

0. 15%

Market Risk Premium

several. 00%


1 . 3


almost 8. 76%

Using the spreadsheet yet changing the numbers to reflect the latest circumstances of Cisco, the subsequent value has been derived from:

3 Level Growth Unit

g (next 5 years)

12. 00%

g (years 6-15)

15. 00%

g (years sixteen to infiniti)

6. 00%

Dividend payout, first stage

18. 67%

Dividend pay out, 2nd stage

25. 00%

Dividend payment, last level

40. 00%




1 ) 5


0. twenty-eight

Price at the end of stage 2

PHOTOVOLTAIC of all payouts in level 12

six. 62

PHOTO VOLTAIC of Inventory price at the conclusion of level 2

$29. 89

Total of B26 B27= modern-day value

$36. 51

The assumptions had been lower development rates as well as the initial dividend that has only been released has been considered. A standard maturation process of the networking organization is thought. This obtaining shows that Barullo is probably worth more than the current market value. The current valuation of the companies are $25. 50. Thus, Cisco appears to be undervalued.

The Residual Income Model

The residual income unit is not the best model for this sort of thing. The[desktop] is best utilized for companies that are not profitable, or do not have confident cash flow, or do not pay dividends. Cisco does not meet these criteria. As such, not much will be expected through the application of the residual income unit in this instance.

The actual of the residual income model is always to take into account not really the profits of the firm, but the salary that is remaining after loans costs had been taken into account. Interest expense for debt loans is already taken out of net income, but the equity loans costs have never been removed. The formula needs the subsequent inputs: equity value, book value, cost of equity. The price tag on equity is k, almost 8. 76%. The calculation of residual income can be therefore:

Net Income

$8. 041 billion

Cost of Equity

almost 8. 76%

Total Equity Exceptional

$56. 788 billion

Total Equity Cost

$4. 974 billion

Residual Income

$3. 067 billion

The remainder income can be $3. 067 billion. This really is added to the book value of the company, which is $56. 788 billion dollars to obtain $59. 855 billion. Divide by a few. 315 billion shares outstanding to get a worth of $11. 26 every share. With this valuation method, Cisco is usually overvalued at its current level. While this methodology offers its weaknesses, it is an interesting exercise to find out that it gives quite a different number.


The price/earnings rate is simple the ratio of the price of a share divided by the income per discuss (EPS). This ratio is commonly used to help value shares and companies. The current PRICE TO EARNINGS ratio for Cisco is 14. nineteen. The traditional value of EPS to get Cisco can be 17. three or more, which means that the stock is trading just a little lower than it is often relative to earnings. The traditional level is actually will be used for making this computation. For this, the EPS should be projected forward6171. This requires comprehending the EPS expansion rate. A regression displays the EPS growth level over the past five years is 0. 042, so this is definitely added to the current EPS of $1. 50 to receive an anticipated EPS next year of $1. 542. With the historic PRICE TO EARNINGS, the stock price should be:

1 . 542 * 17. 3 sama dengan $26. 67

This is pretty close to the current value of Cisco, yet shows that most likely Cisco can be slightly undervalued with respect to P/E. The reason for this is that the P/E multiple has normally been higher before than it can be today. As a result, perhaps the marketplace is not optimistic about Cisco’s growth mainly because it used to always be.

P/CF Unit

The price to cash flow version equates the price of the stock to the operating cash runs. The current working cash flow is usually $11. 491 billion. The regression of the past five years, nevertheless , shows that functioning cash flow continues to be shrinking. Consequently, the expected operating cashflow for the coming year is actually $11. 39 billion dollars. The ancient price/cash stream ratio pertaining to Cisco is 21. 1 . This gives us the following calculations for the expected price of Cisco:

21. 1 * (11. 39/5. 34) = $45.

By this estimate, Cisco is very undervalued. The present price appears a bit out of strike with traditional price/cash movement ratios, even with the expected slump in cash flow. The industry perhaps wants cash flow to be quite a bit reduce next year compared to the model suggests.

P/S Model

The price to sales version is the final model. The[desktop] equates the cost of the share to the sales. The current standard of sales is definitely $47. 88 billion. The regression series shows that next year’s anticipated sales happen to be $50. 784 billion. The historic normal of price/sales is 2 . 8. Therefore the expected inventory price based on this method is usually:

2 . 8* (50. 784/5. 34) sama dengan $26. 62

By this style, Cisco is definitely slightly undervalued. It is interesting that this style gives virtually the same cost as the P/E version, which suggests a detailed correlation among sales and earnings, since the figures move around in a similar way.


The next table shows the outcomes from the five diverse methodologies:

Desk 3 Results




  • Category: mathematics
  • Words: 1852
  • Pages: 7
  • Project Type: Essay