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United States, public accomplishments remained until the middle of the nineteenth century, if the practice began to fall out of favor as a result of shifts in attitudes toward criminality and criminal proper rights. Several states opted to banish general public executions, without necessarily abolishing the fatality penalty by itself. In 1936, the last open public hanging came about in the United States. Through the early twentieth century, additional reforms occurred disallowing “cruel and unusual” forms of setup such as community hangings, yet several says continue to allow public viewings of executions (Reggio, 1997).


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As capital punishment fell out of favor and humanitarian ideals prevailed in the philosophy of criminal rights, the company of imprisonment became the de facto recourse to relieve symptoms of serious criminal offenses. Whereas previously serious crimes would be cared for via capital punishment, the prison system provided the means by which usually to concern heavy sanctions, segregating the accused in the greater public while as well permitting intended for the possibility of treatment. Langbein (1976) points out the fact that substitution of imprisonment to get capital treatment started at England and Europe by the 17th 100 years. Enlightenment ideals and humanism further fomented the change towards the sanction of imprisonment for serious crime. Yet , galley imprisonment and other severe and exploitative methods continued to be used until the early 20th century.

a few. The penitentiary system as it exists today has a lengthy history and can be traced dating back to medieval Britain (Langbein, 1976). A expansion of penitentiary systems is now integral to criminal justice and a central characteristic of the cultural and political landscape of America. Penitentiaries owe their very own philosophical presence to Enlightenment values, espousing forms of treatment that were fewer cruel and even more humanistic than capital treatment. The notion that criminals could possibly be rehabilitated likewise made it is way into the philosophy of penitentiaries, although prisons have been designed with Bentham’s concept of the “panopticon” always in mind. Several penitentiaries presented the means whereby criminals would carry out slave labor, and essentially continue to do this today in America’s privatized prison system. The penitentiary system is constantly on the blend tacit belief in rehabilitation using a more overt belief in punitive punishment for criminal offenses.

4. Foucault critiqued the modern disciplinary system from a sociological point of view, showing the way the institution of a prison keeps total and power in the individuals inside it. As such, prisons will be “complete and austere. ” They use strategies like continuous surveillance to

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