Permanent magnet Levitation

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This kind of paper involves the design, equipment, technology, application and future uses of “Magnetic levitation trains. ” The maglev transportation strategy is more secure, faster, effective and financial. Maglev systems are currently in use for applications such as bearings, high- speed trains, and manufacturing. Maglev is a method of propulsion that uses magnetic levitation to propel vehicles with magnets rather than with wheels, axle assemblies, and bearings. With maglev, a vehicle is levitated a shorter distance away from a guideway using magnets to create both equally lift and thrust. In future, these High-speed maglev trains would give an enormous competition for the aviation market.

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Research technique

I’ve chosen a really trending matter which is, the “Magnetic Levitation Trains”.

My record is based on the basic information from the internet further adding on, analysis from the magazine as well as in the websites which usually made my own work much easier. All the information was readily available which in turn added additional to my personal interest in undertaking the job with highest sincerity and honesty. Therefore my function is a mix of primary and secondary data.

Maglev trains will be the new technology the breakthrough to get the world. Maglev or magnet levitation is precisely how it sounds, which is the levitation of objects or perhaps vehicle. Unlike the conventional cars with four tires for autos or bed rails for trains, the whole product is changed. In the maglev program, there is no contact between the tracks and wheels the object remains to be levitated consequently traction and friction will not come into the style. Friction and traction play a major role deciding the velocity of the motor vehicle, without these the speed substantially increases. Maglev trains don’t get affected by weather condition, unlike the standard trains. Countries like India where most citizens travel through the teach and having a huge part of land this idea of maglev needs to be presented so that the period taken intended for travel can be incredibly reduced.


A magnetic is a subject that has a magnetic field. That attracts ferrous objects just like pieces of straightener, steel, pennie, and co (symbol). These day’s magnets are made artificially in various shapes and sizes based on their employ. One of the most common magnets the bar magnet can be described as long, rectangular bar of uniform cross-section that draws in pieces of ferrous objects. The magnetic compass needle is also commonly used. The compass needle is a very small magnet which is free to maneuver horizontally on a pivot. A single end of the compass filling device points in the North course and the other endpoints inside the South course. The end of the freely pivoted magnet will always point in the North-South direction. The end that points inside the North is the North Post of the magnet and the end that points south is known as the Southern Pole of the magnet. It has been confirmed by tests that like magnetic poles repel each other whereas as opposed to poles attract each other.

Magnetic field and field lines

Magnetic Discipline

The space surrounding a magnet, by which magnetic power is applied, is called a magnetic discipline. If a pub magnet is put in such a field, it will knowledge magnetic forces.

Magnetic Lines of Power

If a small north magnetic post is placed inside the magnetic discipline created by a magnet, it will experience a force. The magnetic lines of power are the lines drawn in a magnetic field along which usually a north magnetic post would approach. The direction of a magnet line of pressure at any point provides direction of the magnetic force on a north pole placed at that point. Because the direction of the magnetic brand of force is a direction from the force on the North Post, so the magnetic lines of force usually begin for the N-pole of a magnet and end for the S-pole in the magnet. A small magnetic compass when transferred along a line of power always pieces itself along the line tangential to it. So , a line drawn from the To the south Pole in the compass to its the North Post indicates the direction of the magnetic field.

Maglev technology

This technology uses monorail observe with geradlinig motors, these trains go forward special paths rather than the popular conventional train tracks. They use very powerful electromagnets to reach larger velocities, that they float regarding 1- 12 cms over a guideway on the magnetic field. These teaches are powered by the guideways. Once the teach is taken into the subsequent section the magnetism fuses so that the train is taken on again. The electromagnets run the size of the guideway.

The technicians of maglev train

Magnetic levitation trains function through the use of electromagnets, which are magnets created by simply electric current. A great electromagnet is defined as “a coil of protected wire twisted around a great iron or steel cylinder”, and features when current flows throughout the coil a magnetic field is made. These electromagnets are used to lift the train above its track, as well as propel it forward.

There are three main types of Maglev trains:

  • Electromagnetic suspension
  • It’s the magnetic levitation of an subject achieved by constantly altering the strength of a magnet field made by electromagnets by using a feedback cycle. In most cases, the levitation impact is mostly as a result of permanent magnets as they dont have any electrical power dissipation, with electromagnets just used to support the effect. In these kinds of fields, an unstable balance condition is present. Although stationary fields simply cannot give stability, EMS functions by continually changing the current delivered to electromagnets to change the strength of the magnetic field and permits a stable levitation to occur. In EMS a feedback cycle which consistently adjusts a number of electromagnets to improve the objects motion can be used to terminate the instability. In this system, Electromagnets will be attached to the train and also attached to the guideway trail. They have ferromagnetic stators on the track and they help them to levitate the train. They have guidance magnets on the sides of the track they are laid complete over the track A pc is used to regulate the height of levitation of train they earn us levitate about ( 1 ” 15 cms ). The Max acceleration these trains could reach is about 438km/hr. They have an onboard battery power supply that gives a surplus amount of one’s required to operate a cabin.

  • Electrodynamic suspension
  • Superconducting magnets are placed within the train. At this time system, the train may levitate about 10 centimeter from the guideway. The permanent magnet field which helps the train to levitate is due to the applying of superconducting magnets. The force in the track is done by an induced magnet field in wires or conducting strips in the monitor.

    In electrodynamic postponement, interruption (EDS), both guideway plus the train apply a magnet field, plus the train can be levitated by the repulsive and attractive force between these types of magnetic domains. EDS systems have a major downside as well. In slow rates of speed, the current induced in these shelves and the resultant magnetic flux is not large enough to compliment the excess weight of the teach. For this reason, the train should have wheels or some other form of landing gear to aid the train until it actually reaches a speed that can support levitation. Since a coach may visit any location, due to equipment problems, for instance, the entire observe must be capable to support equally low-speed and high-speed operation. Another bad thing is that the EDS system naturally creates a discipline in the track in front also to the rear with the lift magnets, which functions against the magnets and makes a form of drag.

  • Inductrack system
  • This can be a suspension fail system, no power is needed to activate magnets. The magnetic field is found below the car, they can generate enough pressure at low speeds (around 5 km/h) to levitate maglev teach. In case of electricity failure vehicles slow down on their own safely, long term magnets are arranged within an array which helps in the propulsion from the trains. They might require either tires or monitor segments that move to get when the motor vehicle is halted. Neither Inductrack nor the Superconducting EDS is able to levitate vehicles at a standstill, although Inductrack provides levitation down to a much lower speed, wheels are essential for these systems. EMS devices are wheel-less.

    The maglev track

    The magnetized coil working along the trail, called a guideway, repels the large magnets within the trains undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate between 0. 39 and several. 93 inches wide (1 to 10 cm) above the guideway. Once the teach is levitated, power comes to the coils within the guideway walls to create a unique system of magnetic domains that draw and force the educate along the guideway. The electric energy supplied for the coils inside the guideway walls is constantly switching to change the polarity of the magnetized coils. This enhancements made on polarity triggers the magnetic field in front of the train to pull the vehicle ahead, while the magnetic field at the rear of the teach adds more forward drive. Maglev trains float on a cushion of air, reducing friction. Absence of rubbing and the teaches aerodynamic styles allow these kinds of trains to get to unprecedented floor transportation rates of speed of more than five-hundred kmph, or twice as fast as Amtraks fastest commuter train. In comparison, a Boeing-777 commercial airline used for long-range flights can reach a highly regarded speed of about 905 kmph. Developers admit maglev locomotives will at some point link urban centers that are approximately 1, 609 km a part. At 500 km, you might travel from Paris to Rome in only over two hours.

    Development of maglev trains:

    You will discover different factors which tend to be used in the advancement maglev locomotives, these aid in movement, steadiness, guidance and so forth of a coach.


    Some EMS systems provides both levitation and propulsion using an onboard thready motor. But some EDS systems are like they can levitate the train making use of the magnets on board but simply cannot propel that forward. Consequently, vehicles require some other technology for propulsion. A thready motor (propulsion coils) installed in the observe is one particular solution


    Any combination of static magnets cannot be in a stable sense of balance. Therefore a dynamic magnetic field is necessary to achieve leveling. EMS systems rely on effective electronic leveling which frequently measures the bearing distance and adjust the electromagnet current consequently. All EDS systems rely on changing permanent magnetic fields creating electrical currents, and these can give passive stability. Because maglev automobiles essentially take flight, stabilization of pitch, rotate, and yaw is required by simply magnetic technology. In addition to the rotation, move forward and backward, sway (sideways motion) or heave (up and down motions) can be troublesome with some systems.


    Some systems use Null Current devices (also sometimes called Null Flux systems), they use a coil which is wound in order that it enters two opposing, switching fields so the average débordement in the loop is zero. When the vehicle with the straight ahead situation, no current flows, but if it techniques off-line this creates a changing flux that generates a field that naturally pushes and pulls it back into series. This is the assistance system of maglev trains.

    Evacuated tubes

    Some devices (notably the Swissmetro system) propose the usage of (vactrain ) maglev educate technology used in evacuated (airless) tubes, that is used to remove air drag. It has the potential to boost speed and efficiency greatly, as most of the energy intended for conventional maglev trains is usually lost as a result of aerodynamic drag. One potential risk for individuals of locomotives operating in cleared out tubes is they could be encountered with the risk of vacation cabin depressurization except if tunnel basic safety monitoring systems can repressurize the pipe in the event of a train crash or accident.

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