History of Day care Institutions and Qualifications In this essay We are outlining the history of childcare institutions and qualifications and how they have developed in relation to the needs with the country, friends and family needs and society. I will be looking at the subsequent occupations wet nurses, governesses, nannies and nursery nurses and how certification have developed within these tasks.
I shall them to the qualifications , available today, and how sexuality and sociable class possess impacted on these vocations. Also My spouse and i shall consider how the programs content is promoting to meet the requirements of the changing role in the childcare member of staff and how that relates to my teaching practice currently and the future. When focusing on childcare a fundamental starting point is thinking about the role in the wet registered nurse and why she was popular and demand.
Moist nursing may date back as far as Moses. If the princess discovered baby Moses floating down the Nile the girl asked Miriam to find a moist nurse. In Ancient Egypt poor females used to health supplement their cash flow by getting wet nurses for the upper class citizens or mothers who could not produce enough milk.
Agreements were drawn up between them to ensure the wet nurse provided good milk; protecting against the wet nurse by nursing various other children, making love, or turning into pregnant (history-wet-nursing, 2011). In lots of cultures moist nurses had been an ancient traditions, for example within the Chinese lifestyle, before the Ww2, wet nursing was common practice. The Communists attempted to outlaw the practice but also in the 21st century it has become a status symbol and due to the melamine milk scandal this ancient profession offers seen a revival.
Damp nurses in China today must leave their particular children, preserve a special diet, and undergo training in selected cases. Furthermore, if the infants that they registered nurse do not expand 20 grms each day, the wet nursing staff are fined by their organisations. (history-wet-nursing, 2011) During the Victorian age it was history for the top classes to utilize a moist nurse because once more this was seen as a status symbol. Other reasons were that women of this age were generally married to authoritarian partners who thought that breastfeeding interfered with sex as well as the women themselves assumed which it would disfigure their chest.
Furthermore, during this period infant mortality was excessive and upper class families were encouraged to obtain large families to ensure the endurance of an heir. Breast feeding provided a form of contraceptive and eliminated ovulation as a result, spacing out pregnancies. That wasn’t unusual for babies to be delivered to a moist nurse’s brand name 18 to 24 months to ensure that the mom to become pregnant again.
Normally a wet health professional could be nourishing many children including their own (sometimes to their detriment) and was either paid in addition to a labourer or received almost nothing. Morisot, The Wet Registered nurse (1880) Relating to Valerie Fildes there have been three types of moist nurses the parish registered nurse who required in parish infants and was usually receiving poor relief herself; the healthcare professionals of the London Foundling Medical center who performed under the supervision of inspectors; the for yourself employed health professional, for whom wet-nursing was obviously a significant and continuing profession for which she received a great wage both in money and kind: typically she was cared for by simply her nurse-children in after life and received the occasional bequest from their website. (Fildes, 1988, g. 43) The qualities necessary for a damp nurse by the Victorians had been worked out in enormous fine detail.
She must have an attractive confront, clear eye, well made nostril, red mouth area, white teeth and a profound chest. The design of her breasts was very important and their size form and coloring were all taken into account. She should also possess a good character, speak very well, not end up being pregnant or perhaps desire the organization of her husband. The causes for these certain qualities had been that it was thought that they would always be transferred throughout the breast milk to the kid (Fildes, 1988). By the middle of the 19th hundred years wet rns had almost disappeared although isolated illustrations still been with us (Churchill had a wet nurse).
Surprisingly, rainy nursing can be making a reappearance in society today, there are rainy nursing companies where moms can use a wet registered nurse. Within society today, a woman may select this option as a result of health causes of example serious illness or perhaps disease just like AIDS, a great inability to create breast milk or multiple births. Furthermore, this privilege is still limited to the upper and middle classes of culture who have the means to pay out.
However , through the Victorian era this may have already been seen as prevalent practice nevertheless during this hundred years it is quite typically seen as a taboo subject, since pregnant mothers are given advice about the benefits of nursing from medical researchers who positively encourage new mothers to conform with this practice. Alongside this there is the pressure from federal government initiative and more detailed exploration, that are changing the ideology of world thinking dismissing the Victorian idea of rainy nursing as a status image. When comparing anyone specification from the wet nurse in the nineteenth century to today’s moist nurses, it seems that there are some commonalities such as being in health, not smoking or eating alcohol.
Today, they are also vetted and tested for transferable diseases simply because more can be understood about these by society and health care professionals. Furthermore, rainy nurses need to have a baby of a similar grow older in order for the milk to get of the correct constitution and in addition they would generally live or perhaps work in the employer’s residence whereas recently they would have been taken to the wet rns home. Pursuing on from your wet health professional there is the introduction of nannies.
The history of nannies may be traced backside as far as the seventeenth century. The The english language nanny was an establishment and was most popular during the eighteenth century. She actually is often portrayed in ebooks and movies as a kind, gentle girl who kids adored; in fiction such as Jayne Eyre, Mary Poppins and more lately Nanny McFee. Before teaching developed nannies were frequently what had been known as gentlewomen who had dropped on difficult experience and had to back up themselves.
They saw becoming a nanny as a solution to their particular predicament. Not every nannies were kind, several were extremely cruel. The nanny generally had a great deal of power and responsibility inside the home; she had her own sectors to look after your children usually near the top of the house. The upper classes, utilized nannies to make sure that they continue their particular leisurely lifestyle. Children at the time were also seen as they should be seen and not heard and parents left it towards the nanny to have total treatment and responsibility for their parental input.
Parents simply spent a while in the working day with all of them accompanied by the nanny. The nanny could usually have a nursery cleaning service to assist her who would do the menial jobs such as preparing meals and laundry. Generally, nannies learned from other nannies and advancement was generally nursery maid, nursemaid or underneath nurse, sometimes a period of working being a second childcare professional, and then finally a childcare professional in her own correct. In 1892 the initial training college or university was build by Emily Ward. Your woman ran a school for young kids in Norland Place and recognised the advantages of training.
The lady was one of the earliest recommends of the Froebel system of instructing which was depending on the way that all children are born good, which to help them develop, adults ought to provide the right environment and activities. These kinds of protect your child from learning bad habits of evil tendencies(Tassoni, 2006, p19). Emily Ward found that lots of of the pupils who attended her intended for training weren’t academic and found the Froebel examination as well difficult despite her college students being very practical and having a great like of children. Emily Ward recognised that in case the students could possibly be trained, not simply would it advantage the children although would provide a fresh profession for girls of the informed classes.
Learners were recharged a fee of thirty six pounds which covered six months schooling. The students were also expected to wear a standard which Emily Ward believed would recognize them while professionals and not have them mistaken for housemaids. This qualified prospects me to think that formerly the part the childcare professional was seen for women to earn a good living after they found themselves to be in a financial situation rather than seeking a formal qualification.
However , throughout the latter stage of the nineteenth century the creation of a formal qualification and payment for schooling transformed nanning into a job, but still only allowed informed middle category, girls the chance. The students schooling was separated into the following: – Three fortnights pertaining to cooking, laundry, and domestic work, and six weeks spent in the Norland Place University, looking in at lessons, and providing help to the teachers. (Gibbs, 60, pg 178) Lectures succumbed the morning and the afternoons had been spent working out (walks in the fresh air), the early evenings were for learning needlework.
The second 90 days were spent in clinic training as well as the students had been then provided one month’s holiday prior to taking a content in a non-public family like a children’s registered nurse. If the employer was pleased with the student she’d continue for another three months and only then could the Norland Certificate become awarded. By simply today’s specifications training was centred around domestic scientific research rather than understanding the child and how they develop, which might confer with the ideology of woman’s function within culture at that time since the traditional housewife.
However , at a glance nanny’s of today are still required to fulfil home duties just like cooking and laundry yet this is not curricular based however has more focus on the development of your child. By 1904 the training improved slightly when it was realized that learners needed to gain practical experience to complete their task and a tiny nursery was set up overseen by knowledgeable children’s nursing staff with the students acting as under-nurses. This practice was highly regarded simply by employers if the students acquired posts, and is seen positively and valuable by employers today. By 1924 fees had risen to eighty pounds and the school expanded.
Through the Second World War the school and nursery evacuated to Devon, but many of the college students gave up their training and joined the women’s providers. After the conflict the college relocated to Chislehurst and learners began training again. The course by itself was expanded from half a year to twenty one months and included domestic science, educations training, household nursery schooling and a hospital health professional course.
College students were also educated story-telling and games for the under-fives. (Gibbs, 60, pg 180) Great emphasis was located within the teaching on the requirements of the little child, college students gained connection with this from working in the nursery placed on the college and nursery colleges and toddler welfare zones outside of the faculty. An evaluation was as well introduced towards the end of the 21 years old month’s the National Nursery Evaluation Board qualification or NNEB. However , the Norland Qualification was only awarded to students who had completed a single year’s sufficient work in content which was agreed by Principal. Simply two years were allowed in the end of training to obtain the full certificate.
The faculty also prompted students in which to stay touch with them no less than three years after completing their license. They did this kind of to ensure that they could the actual career of each and every student and ensure that the regular of the university could be managed. Norland nannies were well respected and there was a consistent demand in private posts, nurseries and then for posts as school matrons.
Norland College was the first training university to open in 1892 and later other colleges began to show up. The Queen Christian Schooling College for Nursery Nursing staff opened in Manchester later, in 1901, under the immediate patronage of the Princess Christian (third girl of Queen Victoria). The girl suggested that instead of hospital training, a course of house nursing needs to be introduced.
She also felt extremely strongly a nurse needs to be forbidden to punish kids herself. The advantages of training colleges was recognised by the Gentlewomen’s Employment Association (1891), Queen Christian was one of its patrons. Like the Norland College this provided work for gentlewomen who required to earn a living at a time when it has not been generally acceptable.
The Little princess Christian College’s training period was eight months as opposed to Norland’s 6 months and was hard and rigorous. College students had to be working at 6 and complete cleaning and cleaning before breakfast at seven. They had night time lectures and sewing after supper, zero holidays and half a time off every week.
The college as well had testimonial books which usually recorded every nurse’s job, including a principal’s report including the end of her teaching and a reference coming from her previous employer. There is also a stark compare to the teaching that was provided in 1904 towards the qualification we see today. Although there is still a solid emphasis on function based teaching the standard in the qualification can be not as strong as in the 19th and early twentieth century which could be mainly because students are being recognized onto training with a required level of education and the demands in the role include changed.
During the First Community War The Princess Christian College went into economical difficulties and in May 1918 closed. The college reopened once again in 1919 in new premises but closed again at break out of the Ww2 in order for kids to be removed. After the warfare the college reopened and reorganised its syllabus and schooling to cover all of the changes in social conditions.
Teaching was prolonged to 18 months and covered the NNEB requirements (Gibbs, 1960). At the time Martha Ann Gibbs wrote her book The Years of the Nannies (1960) the fees for the eighteen month course by Princess Christian College was? 270 to get a resident college student and? a hundred and forty for a non-resident student. Bursaries and local power grants had been available for fewer well away students.
The syllabus in 1960 included: – daily nursery use babies and small children, teaching in the preparing and preparation of newborn diets, trained in the milk kitchen, general cookery and nutrition, laundry and housewifery, needlework with design and care of children’s clothes, hygiene and physiology and the unit nursery. (Gibbs, 1960, Pg 190) The college granted three records to learners the initially being a Probationers Certificate about completion of satisfactory training and a Nurse’s Certificate for 2 years sufficient work, dating from the ranting of the Probationers Certificate. Finally, the student will be awarded The Special License with Logo for three year’s satisfactory job, dating from the granting in the Nurse’s Qualification.
After a college student had finished her training she experienced quite a a comprehensive portfolio of employment opportunities just like working as being a nanny, doing work in day and residential nurseries, working with handicapped children, school matron, baby room nurses about maternity wards and in passenger liner nurseries. A Night Registered nurse at The Little princess Christian Schooling College Students who also completed their training in the training colleges usually discovered employment through the college or through advertising in women’s journals, or perhaps professional journals. One of those journals was Nursery World which has been first launched in 1925 which is still employed by our students today.
The other was The Lady first posted in 1885 which promoted many job opportunities for nannies. Nannies remain very much in demand today, their job has changed because they function closely with parents respecting their opinions and wishes and are more usually employed by working parents. They are needed to be trained to Level 3 and most could have had experience with babies.
In comparison, nannies in the eighteenth century would often live with the family, although nannies now can live. They also have the chance to work for family members abroad and will command large salaries and additional benefits such as holidays and use of a car. [pic] Advertisements’ from Careers and Professional Training tenth Edition The role with the nanny was important however you cannot overlook the role with the governess in the eighteenth and nineteenth hundred years. She is described in hype as a unhappy, somewhat stern figure yet many women entered this profession. She would have been a well knowledgeable middle-class girl who like the nanny had to provide a living for very little.
In Even victorian times ladies were seen because the responsibility of men her spouse, father or perhaps brother. If they were unable to supply financially on her, working as being a governess was seen as socially acceptable. There were a high with regard to governesses in he Victorian era (despite the expansion of open public school education for boys and community school intended for the masses) especially if these people were competent in teaching math’s and scientific research.
The census of 1851 showed that there were twenty-four, 770 governesses in England and Wales. (Hudson, 1970, p45) The very best qualification in the governess was having a great background appropriate in with the correct social course. She was required to write a letter of application in order for the family to consider her appropriateness. Many family members listed subjects they necessary their governess to teach. Wanted, a Governess, on Handsome Terms.
Governess a comfortable home, nevertheless without salary, is offered to the lady wishing for a situation as governess in a gentleman’s family, moving into the country, to teach two young girls in music, drawing, and English; a thorough knowledge of the French language is essential. ( Advertising campaign, The Times. (London: 27 June, 1845). The top class families still continued to educate youngsters at home and it was to the relatives to decide the moment their children could enter the university room. To be able to ensure their very own employability that they sought to enhance their education and this lead them attaining a ground in advanced schooling.
During the nineteenth century, professional books and journals were printed to get governesses to use. These were read among various other teachers and anxious parents to share educational procedures and lessons, and keep The Governess these people informed with the changing educational reform inside the Victorian time. In 1843 The Governesses’ Benevolent Establishment was formed and it helped educate governesses and presented aid for retired or out of work governesses in and around London.
It also offered a computer registry for governesses and households seeking a governess to set their details. This was a lot like an employment company today. In addition to this and pressure from the governesses the commence expanded and included a school for governesses to study and improve their education. A gift from the Royal prince and Princess of Wales enabled money for free evening classes. The Queens College was founded in 1848 and its goal was to provide skills for governesses, it presented Lectures for Ladies from where at the end of study they received a Diploma.
Almost all the lectures received by males from Kings College, and older girls known as Lady Visitors attended to act as chaperones to the girl students. It truly is clear that despite substantial changes in the era with the wet nurse there is continue to a vast split between precisely what is considered over and above the realms of the girl as it is the person that is considered able to lecture in the main subjects while the woman is only expected to understand and deliver to her fees. The A queen college was seen as a great institution offering higher education for girls.
In the last 10 years of the nineteenth century the Queens University and The Home of Education developed a curriculum particularly for the training of governesses which saw a radical change in the profession with the governess. People now wanted to employ governesses with certificates and learning education rather than, be skilled solely by way of a family qualifications. We must remember the fact that at this time education for girls was seen as less important and it was not until the 1900 that behaviour changed once girls started to enter open public high school and boarding educational institutions and this resulted in the decrease of the governess. Governesses are still employed today but their function has changed.
Today they need to carry a degree including least couple of years experience as an educator. They might live with the family or perhaps live out. They often have sole charge from the children’s education although in some cases they may merely supplement the child’s education. This could be instruction a child to obtain their 12 plus, or providing further help to get specific subject matter, or in most subjects, with all the goal of preparing college students to apply to and be recognized into very good colleges. They might also be used if a friends and family moves to one other country so that children can learn the dialect or maintain the education that correlates for their native region.
The career is still mainly female directed despite the pay and circumstances being good. This might be due to many factors such as living in the employer’s residence and communities view of a male within a governess part. The Second Universe War noticed an increase in working day nurseries while men disappeared and women had been called upon to adopt over the job left to perform at home.
The Ministry of Health organized and closely watched this dotacion. In view of this more gardening shop nurses needed to be trained and January 1944 The Nationwide Nursery Evaluation Board was created and they proven an exam for all nursery nurses. The first evaluation was consumed in 1946. The syllabus and training has changed considerably through the years, notably in 1965, the age selection was extended to eight years of age, ahead of this learners trained to work together with children up to five years.
This decision was prompted by the maximize use of class assistance in primary universities and the Plowden Report’s (1967) recommendation that nursery rns should be intended for this position. In 1975 the Bullock Survey, A Language for Life made the same suggestion that baby room nurses needs to be used while trained assistants and function alongside professors in helping dialect development in young children. (Herrman, 1979, p. 21). Following the Second World War provision that was put in place to get childcare was not expanded further. This was partially due to guys needing careers that women acquired done in the war, and society’s view that women ought to be in the home maintaining their children.
The 1950’s noticed the beginning of Playgroups, these were parent co-operatives produced in personal homes or perhaps community admission. They were only available in order to load the distance in nursery provision for 3 and four season olds. In 1961 Superbe Tutaev had written to the Mom or dad offering aid to anybody who have wanted to launch a playgroup.
She received letters via all over the country and playgroups burgeoned and grew. (Dean, 2005, Pg 13) The Pre-School Playgroup Association (PPA) was placed in 1962, the aims with the organisation initially were two-fold: mutual support for those jogging groups and also the lobbying of government to emphasise the importance of pre-school provision also to seek the withdrawal of Circular 8/60 which prevented state gardening shop expansion. (PLA Factsheet) Playgroups depended heavily about voluntary staff and on mothers to provide perform activities to get the children. Several of these volunteers had been untrained due to lack of funding. This restricted their work and personnel were given tiny recognition.
An additional reason for unqualified staff was that until the Children’s Act 1989 playgroups acquired little statutory guidance or regulation. Those playgroups that had been affiliated with the PPA do have access to training (short classes in perform work) if they were in a position to fund this. The PPA in 1991 proven themselves since training services under the Nationwide Council pertaining to Vocational Skills. Other childcare provision among 1946 and 1990 just like private nurseries and local expert nurseries extended to employ NNEB qualified personnel or comparable. In 1990 there were various childcare skills that students were able to analyze.
The main qualifications for setting nursing had been the NNEB, BTEC National Diploma plus the Certificate in Post-Qualifying Studies (CPQS). The NNEB being the most respected and well known was still a requirement for some posts but it really did not give a valid access into advanced schooling. However , the BTEC National Diploma was thought to be more academic and allowed learners to progress onto more advanced education and schooling being the equivalent of A Amounts. When you appear back with the history of the NNEB it absolutely was not attempt to be a degree that would enable progress to raised education though comparing that to today’s CACHE Level 3 Diploma it was much more rigorous.
The selections of qualifications had been many and 1991 something of Countrywide Accreditation was introduced to link qualifications. NVQ’s were introduced in 1991 in attempt to give experienced staff without a degree a chance to acquire a Level two and 3. The NVQ syllabus engaged students demonstrating competence at work through analysis whilst building a portfolio expertise evidence. This kind of qualification theoretically did fill up a training distance but funding still continued to be an issue along with adults having to study around friends and family commitments and in addition if they had the academic confidence to examine.
Due to the Start Right Record of 1991 by Bell in which this individual identified numerous routes in to teaching, this is an attempt to get a standardized course into comprehensive training and also of helping workers to progress through the certification system. Up until 1999 certification remained unchanged in what were available and it left employers and students baffled as to what qualification was at what level. It happened in 1999 a new teaching framework was introduced (QCF) and this planned out the levels of every qualification.
This kind of gave obvious guidance for college students, employers and training organizations to assess their very own current qualifications. In 2002 the new NVQ Level some was launched *they would be to provide a route for those doing work in senior administration level or perhaps advanced practitioners (Pugh, 2001, P. 190) they were academically and virtually demanding certification and taken 120 CATs points. This was a way of increasing entry towards the Early Years Base Degree. In 1994 REFUGE was established and merged with all the National Setting Education Plank and The Authorities for Early Years Awards.
In 2001 the National Connection for Mother’s and Child Welfare (NAMCW) merged with CACHE, and Her Majesty the California king became the patron. DISPARITION at this point started to be the awarding body and offered different Childcare skills from Entry Level to NVQ 4. As joining Canterbury College in February 2006 the qualifications have transformed twice, having a third alter is about to happen. The delivery of the courses has not changed because students nonetheless attend positionings and have to show competence.
The only difference to the NNEB would be that the students don’t work with kids attached to the college. We have placement visitors that visit the college student in their placement who assess their proficiency and statement back to their very own course tutor. Level several students until 2007 even now had to sit down an end naturally exam to be able to qualify along with passing product assignments. The qualification transported UCAS points to allow admittance to university depending on overall quality achieved. It was quite clear during the time that the grades students accomplished were quite low and very few went upon university.
In my opinion this to be for this reasons (a) students weren’t properly examined at interview and were on the incorrect level of program, (b) there was clearly a high level of turnover of staff which affected the teaching in the students and causing disaffection. There was the big drop-out rate. I remember well, my own first working day in the classroom, getting bombarded with complaints.
In 2007 DISPARITION reviewed the content of the syllabus as the previous syllabus was quite old and daycare practice had changed significantly. The new syllabus carries precisely the same format of placement and academic job and still extended to carry UCAS points. The grading with the assignments become a point system instead of the earlier system of move or pertain.
The students also need to complete a analysis task and a short noticed scenario examination. This I feel has led to students achieving larger grades and even more have gone on to university. The department continues to be running this kind of Level 3 Diploma for the past three years although last year we were advised which the qualification might hange along with NVQ’s being cease. This has had a big effect on the office as a whole. The introduction of the Level several Diploma pertaining to the Children and Young Individuals Workforce is definitely the only diploma available for learners to study to be childcare personnel.
The delivery of the course is very much depending on the NVQ delivery of observed evaluation and an understanding portfolio. We now have started to operate a pilot group for this new qualification and it has engaged various modifications in our department and in the educating. Students surely have to be allotted an assessor who has an A1 diploma and college students only show up at three times a week almost every week. Already, this has posed problems in that the training course is designed to be educated holistically but not unit led as the prior qualifications. It can be designed so that the assessor and tutor operate closely together.
This does not operate our division as assessors are frequently out seeing students departing little time to get feedback to the tutor. This makes it very difficult to compliment students and ensure that they are progressing. However , we now have recently been informed that due to the qualification not satisfying the requires of the business employers and students the previous degree will continue running no less than another 12 months while they review the course. To summarize, childcare and qualification has evolved in line with the needs in the family and culture starting with the wet nurse through to nannies and governess.
It has as well developed in line with government insurance plan and the social and monetary needs from the country along with current thinking of kid development at the time. Childcare functions have not disappeared but still exist in a modernised way as can be seen in the reappearance of the wet health professional. The status of day care however continue to remains low and this is definitely reflected in pay and conditions. A large number of nurseries even now don’t pay out above minimal wage or provide sick and tired pay, and sometimes only the minimal holiday necessity.
Until this can be addressed the status and moral of childcare workers will not climb. There is continue to a traditions of convinced that anyone can look after children and it is still a mainly female role despite campaigns to attract men candidates. The calibre of students in the us during selection interviews are on the complete, students coming from lower course backgrounds which could have contributed to the introduction of EMA. The fact that students don’t have to pay charges for childcare courses and its workplace component, adds to the perception that they are convenient courses. The college funding system makes it extremely tough to decline students who have we feel not appropriate to the course, and the system makes it hard to withdraw college students who be unsuitable.
That is not lead to offering the best possible maintain young children. Substantially and in contrast to this is that to train as being a Norland Nanny today needs a student to pay total fees and this only allures the more affluent students who wish to train out there. Also, to use a Norland Nanny, is seen as a status symbol by family members, thus highlighting social status despite it’s qualification becoming the same as accomplished at school.
The only big difference being that the Norland Certificate is accomplished at the end of the course over the certification and seen as an stamp of excellence This range of certification enabled pupils to access the qualification that best suited their particular learning and training requirements such as at work training or maybe a full time college or university course. The modern qualification does not take these needs into account. The new qualification does not fit with young pupils who have simply no experience. This is one of the issues that has been outlined along with the training course only as being a year in duration. It is rather worrying that a sixteen yr old could become a fully skilled level 3 in a remedies position with only one year of training.
There are also wider concerns in that the government has reduced funding, (currently there is no funding for over nineteen’s) along with the death of EMA, making access to college much less accessible available well off students that causes a interpersonal divide. The next year provides interesting instances in daycare qualifications and a review within our own office in the instructing and delivery will provide its own challenges because e-learning has been introduced along with apprentiships. This will mean training in use to technology as well as new assessment strategies. Staff will have to adapt their particular delivery of lessons as well as developing a deeper working partnership with assessors, which at the current time is fragmented.
There will need to be changes in the current systems in position and this will without doubt cause frustration to some personnel who locate adapting to change difficult. On a more positive take note the updating of skills for staff will only increase the range of instructing techniques available, hopefully rendering better results for students.