More suitable the knowledge and freedom, the greater the voluntariness; and the increased the voluntariness, the greater the moral responsibility. ” – Alfredo Panizo MODIFIERS OF HUMAN SERVES a) Ignorance b) Passions c) Fear d) Habit e) Physical violence A) IGNORANCE – Lack of knowledge which will a person ought to own “Ignorance of Law exempts no one” – means that one who has done wrong may well not simply and directly state ignorance because defense or perhaps justification or to be freed from sanction mounted on the Law that was violated – means that one should certainly not act in the state of ignorance but always make an effort to dispel this 1) Vincible Ignorance – form of Ignorance which can be conveniently remedied through ordinary diligence and affordable efforts 1 ) a) Influenced Ignorance – a person possess this sort of Ignorance when a person uses positive work to be uninformed in order to be get away responsibility – it is Vincible Ignorance clearly wanted sama dengan studied ignorance 2) Immortals Ignorance – kind of Lack of knowledge which a person owns without being conscious of it or lack the means to fix it CONCEPTS: 1) Invincible Ignorance renders an action involuntary – a person is not liable or perhaps cannot be causante if he could be not aware of his lack of knowledge or once there is nomeans of correcting his ignorance 2) Vincible Ignorance does not destroy yet lessens voluntariness and the related accountability over the act – when a person becomes mindful of one’s ignorance, he/she has got the moral obligation to fix it- and act with this is a kind of imprudence 3) Affected Ignorance though it decreases voluntariness, increases theaccountability over the resultant act – it disturbs intellect – decrease voluntariness – it is willed to persist – increases liability – declining to rectify ignorance is malicious – and malice is graver if ignorance is used while an excuse for not doing the right thing B) PASSION – Either inclinations towards appealing objects (positive emotions just like love, desire, delight, hope, bravery etc) or tendencies away from unwanted or dangerous things (negative emotions just like horror, despair, hatred, hopelessness, fear, anger etc) Passions – psychic responses –neither moral nor immoral – however , man is bound to regulate his thoughts and send them to the control of cause 1) Predecessor Passions – precedes the act – predisposes a person to act 2) Consequent Passions – those that happen to be intentionally aroused and retained – voluntary in cause; the result of the need playing the strings of emotion RULES: 1) Antecedent Passions do not always damage voluntariness nonetheless they diminish responsibility for the resultant work – they weaken the will power devoid of obstructing flexibility completely – therefore , criminal activity of enthusiasm are always voluntary although answerability is diminished because it decreases the freedom from the will 2) Consequent Passions do not lessen voluntariness but may even maximize responsibility – consequent interests are immediate results from the will which in turn fully gives permission to them instead of subordinating them to its control C) FEAR – disturbance around the mind from the person – being confronted by an impending danger or perhaps harm to himself, to his loved ones in order to his real estate – one is compelled to determine to perform a great act to be able to avoid menace of future or upcoming evil 1) Act carried out with fear – certain activities which naturally are harmful or risky – in theses cases, fear is known as a normal response to danger – these actions are voluntary because the doer is in total control of his faculties and acts inspite of fear- dread here is an instinct to get self-preservation (we even dread new experience or situations) ex.

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Getting left exclusively in a peculiar place, getting asked of talking before someone 2) Rebel of fear or because of fear – fear here becomes a confident force convincing a person to act with no careful deliberation – dread modifies the freedom of doing, causing the person to do something in a selected predetermined method, even without his full consent Ex. A child – studies/reads his books – away of fear of his mom A man – stops smoking cigarettes – anxiety about contracting cancer PRINCIPLES: 1) Acts donewith fear are voluntary – acting inspite of his dread and is completely control of himself 2) Serves done away of dread are simply voluntary although conditionally involuntary – simply non-reflex = person remains in control of his function – conditionally involuntary sama dengan if it are not for the existence of something dreaded, the person would not act or would take action in another way – Intimidating or harmful as person with fear is an unjust act – Lawfully speaking, acts done out of dread – invalid acts Former mate.

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Contract – made out of fear – voidable – afterwards be annulled 3) Functions done because of intense dread or anxiety are involuntary – anxiety – morne the mind – in this state of mind, the person is definitely not likely to think properly D) HABIT – everlasting inclinations to behave in a selected way – lasting readiness and service born of frequently repeated acts or for operating in a certain manner – acquire the function of a habit – moves a person to perform selected acts with relative relieve Habit – not easy to overcome or alter – requires a strong-willed person to improve a habit Voluntary Patterns – individuals caused by the repetition of voluntary functions Involuntary Behaviors – a habit becomes such if the will is definitely resolved to remove it and there is a struggle to overcome this PRINCIPLES: 1) Actions done by force of habit are voluntary in cause, until a reasonable efforts is made to combat the recurring inclination – Bad Habits – voluntary in cause because they are results of previously required acts carried out repeatedly – as long as the habits are generally not corrected, bad acts created by force of habit are voluntary and accountable – can be not really accountable – if a person decides to fight his habit. Intended for as long as the effort towards this purpose continues, actions resulting from such habit may be considered to be acts of man as the cause of these kinds of habit is no longer expressly desired E) ASSAULT – any physical force exerted on a person by one other free agent for the purpose of compelling the said person to act against his will Ex.

Bodily self applied, maltreatment, felure, etc RULES: 1) Exterior actions or commanded actions performed by a person subjected to violence, that reasonable amount of resistance has been presented, are unconscious and are not accountable – active level of resistance should always be wanted to an unjust aggressor – if resistance is extremely hard and there is a serious threat to one’s life, a person confronted by assault cab give intrinsic level of resistance DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN ACT: 1 . TAKE ACTION IN ITSELF – nature with the act by itself ( cheating is poor itself in its nature) installment payments on your MOTIVE WITH THE AGENT (intention/purpose) 3. INSTANCES Who=Person What=Quantity or quality Where=Place How=Manner, Means or perhaps instrument When=Time Why=Motive DECIDING A GOOD ACTIONS ACT MOTIVE/END Good & good =GOOD Good + bad =BAD Bad & good =BAD Bad + bad =VERY BAD HONEST THEORIES 1 . Deontological installment payments on your Teleological 3. Divine Command word Ethics 5. Virtues Ethics DEONTOLOGY Deos – “what is joining, right and proper” Duty-oriented appeals to requirements, laws, rules or requests 1 . STOICISM Stoics: mother nature is good Good – surrendering/denying/accepting nature or perhaps whatever takes place Self-denial/simplicity/frugality Wrong- contradict mother nature Three meaning convictions: 1 ) Nature is usually innately great and person is component to nature 2 . Man truly does good through nature and evil by simply contradicting 3. Man must accept exactly what is happening to him w/o question in order to live a great and peaceful life EPICTETUS: everything is usually governed by nature: determinism: issues come as they do: “the fact of good and evil is based on that frame of mind of the will”: absolute obedience – very best virtue: resignation and harmony 3. CONVENTIONALISM OR CONTRACTARIAN THEORY THOMAS HOBBES Precisely what is good is agreed by society through social deal TELEOLOGICAL IDEAS Telos- end Consequence oriented theory Great is based on the consequence of the work 1 . HEDONISM Hedos – pleasure “eat and be cheerful for tomorrow you will die” Good is definitely personal experience of pleasure ARISTIPPUS – The greatest pleasure/ pain is the greatest wicked – The only norm of determining what is good is usually “the many intense sensuous pleasure with the moment. ” – Sexual act among lovers try of the most intense sensual enjoyment EPICURIUS – Man is material and spiritual (death is disintegration) – Gentleman by nature look for pleasure – “good and evil consist in sensation but it should be directed simply by reason and virtue. – Real enjoyment – small amounts decided by the mind – Prudence – wisdom and capacity to control oneself – Social injustices source of soreness in individual relation 2 . UTILITARIANISM Greatest good for the greatest number of people JEREMY BENTHAM – Good whether it promotes increased good (generic law/ofw) – Bad – suffering – Quantitative utilitarianism – Utility or convenience of an take action JOHN STUART MILL – Qualitative utilitarianism – Not the take action and its end but even more on the pride of the person but the dignity of the someone. – “better to be dissatisfied than a this halloween satisfied” – Action is right if it stimulates happiness/ bad-unhappiness – WORK COMMAND THEORY Religious thought Rules and commandments give moral assistance St . Thomas Aquinas: All-natural law INTEGRITY OF MIND Subjective usual of morality Based on normal law Words of God / inner voice as well as other home Practical common sense of explanation Types: 1 ) 2 . three or more. 4. five. 6. Right conscience – correct honest evaluation very good as good/ evil because evil Incorrect – very good as bad and bad as good Particular – firm judgment in the validity and morality of an action Doubtful/dubious – doubtful Lax – bahala na / Scrupulous- sees bad or wrongness even though there is certainly none

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