MARKETING RESEARCH We picture Saint John University because an excellent missionary and transformative educational company zealous inside the formation human resources who happen to be imbued with the Christian Soul and whom are innovative, competent and socially engaged.
SCHOOL OF ACOUNTANCY AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY KOREA October 2013 Endorsement Qualities: Its Inference to Buying Intention Jonand Ray Estabillo, Deaniel Soriano, Raiza NerissaVeridiano, Gian Carlo Villoso and Zenedith P. Monang Abstract Your research aimed to identify the level of effectiveness and the obtaining intention from the consumers based on the advantages of endorsers; Physical Attractiveness, Acceptance, Source Credibility, Brand Congruency and Lineage/ Bloodline/ Genetics. Specifically, the research ought to answer the concerns: what is the profile with the respondents in terms of their gender, occupation, home town and nationality?
Moreover, the study also desired to answer the question: how effective is the endorser and on what level is definitely the consumer’s purpose to buy. The researchers used a detailed method of exploration, and questionnaires were applied to collecting data. The participants of the analysis were customers from countryside and city places whom are whether student or a young professional. Finally, the results in the study proves that consumer buying purpose have a significant effect to the demographic and endorsement characteristics such as physical attractiveness, acceptance, source trustworthiness, brand congruence and lineage/bloodline/hereditary.
Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Buying Intention, Recommendation Attributes Intro Companies of today spend an important amount of their budget about hiring endorsers to advertise their products. These companies make an effort to have a sufficient return on investment with all the expectation that these endorsers will be able to attract the attention of the consumers, raise customers interest by focusing on and demonstrating advantages and benefits, convince consumers that they need and desire the product or perhaps service and this it will meet their needs, sometime later it was on lead customers towards taking actions and/or purchasing. Every Advertisements aims to create awareness and arouse interest in the heads of customers.
To accomplish this advertisers make use of several of marketing techniques. Celeb Endorsement is one of these electricity toolsby which advertisers make an effort to leverage the and identity of the superstar to promote a product or business (Atkin& Obstruct, 1983). This not only makes the advertising campaign lively, desirable, interesting, although attention getting as well (Ohanian 1991, Kamins 1990). And so happens because market takes the celebrity being a role version and in turn these types of celebrities influence their lives.
Celebrity endorsement has been in application from quite a long time (Kaikati 1987), in fact not really too late the moment advertisement methods were signing up for new varieties because promoters realized quickly that by making use of publicly distinguished personalities in advertisements they will be able to line up brands individuality with that with the celebrity’s. This is why advertisers get a careful selection of celebrities because if any micro aspect may get it wrong in celeb endorsement selection process, whole with the celebrity backed advertisement advertising campaign may break. This will eventually show brand the way returning to pavilion (Kaikati 1987, Right up until and Shimp 1995).
This kind of study is designed 1 . ) To identify the endorsement characteristics in purchasing/buying intention in the consumers installment payments on your ) To analyzed the potency of its features such as itsPhysical Attractiveness, Recognition, Source Believability, Brand Congruence and Bloodline/Heredity/Lineage. Literature Review Marketing tends to take a new and unique way of marketing as marketers are discovering different ways to help make the advertisement effective and important. One of these is a use of endorsers.
Endorser can be one significant considerable books on this theme exists. The need for endorsers has been described in various ways. Relating to Erdogan, Baker and Tagg (2001), a spokesperson’s role is usually tomake similar stand out from the clutter, criminal arrest potential customers, put value towards the brand, not only that, build a lasting impression to encourage the buyer to make a purchase. Lane and Russell (2000), argue that one of the principal challenges to promote is to offer a tangible and differentiating element to the marketing of services.
Stafford, Stafford and Time (2002) refer to tangibility’ as the creation of a service’s benefits or perhaps qualities, the association with an extrinsic product, person, event, place or object, the physical representations from the service, and documentation including facts or perhaps figures outlining the characteristics of a service. The use of an endorser is one of the ways of enhancing the tangibility from the advertisement and differentiating this from other folks. The Endorser An endorser is a individual who makes a testimonial’, or a created or a voiced statement, extolling the virtue of several product.
This person could be a super star or a personal citizen. A testimonial generally applies to product sales pitches related to ordinary individuals whereas validation usually applies to pitches by celebrities (Liu, Huang, & Jiang, 2007). This examine focuses on two (2) types of spokespersons superstar and anonymous. Celebrity Endorsers The use of superstars to promote commercial goods and services can be not a new comer to advertisers.
Corporations envision that endorsers whom are desirable and likeable will copy such attributes to their brands and products. In addition , while celebrities happen to be constantly in the media, they will serve to continuously remind consumers of the brands that they endorse. Indeed, the utilization of celebrity endorsers has been attaining in reputation over time.
Especially, celebrity endorsers are effective in generating increased attention and enhanced image of the brand. However , their efficiency in affecting purchase goal is more limited. Celebrities will be people who delight in public recognition by a large share of certain Population group. And the term Celebrity endorsement’ since defined by McCracken: Any individual who looks forward to public reputation and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by showing up with this in an advertising campaign. (McCracken 1989) Advertisers choose celebrity certification because of its higher benefits and immense possible influence.
There are certain potential benefits of celebrity recommendation, celebrities supported advertisements attract more interest as compared to the ones from non-celebrity ones, helps the corporation in re-positioning its product/brand and finally enables the company once it’s new in the market or perhaps plans to travel global. Nevertheless celebrity certification doesn’t hold sole a major ranking factor. It also presents the company with potential risks. These may possibly include, overshadowing, overexposure, and controversy (Erdogan 1999).
Put endorsers or anonymous designs Lay endorsers are not known individuals who are chosen based on the point market demographics. These unknown individuals offer association while using target audience to get a less expensive price. They are usuallypackaged as the typical person’ that the customers can identify with (McCracken, 1989).
Celebrity Endorsers vs . Not Celebrity Endorsers According to Seno & Lukas (2007), Celebrities are extremely much beneficial than other type of endorsers including the company administrator, distinctive customer and the competent expert etc . On the other, companies clutch imperfect control over the movie star endorsers, simply because they have created their public figure themselves over the years. Previous exploration on celeb endorsement discloses that celebrity endorsers developed more positive attitude to advertising and superior purchase intentions than the usual noncelebrity endorser (Atkin and Block 1983; Petty ainsi que al. 1983; Ohanian 1991).
On the contrary, Mehta (1994) believe there were zero statistically significant difference in attitudes towards advertising, manufacturer and purchase goal on endorsed brand amongst celebrity and non-celebrity real reviews. But , dissimilarities were present in cognitive responses generated by respondents. Validation Attributes Physical Attractiveness Bodily attractive communicators are more successful in changing beliefs than are less attractive communicators (Chaiken, 1979). In today’s world, people are likely to place a large emphasis on attractiveness, and most adverts feature desirable models. In a way, the physical attractiveness of the endorser rubs off for the product, enhancing the product’s image and resulting in positive attitude modify (Kahle and Homer, 1985).
This take into account the importance of matching up the image with the celebrity while using characteristics with the product. The match up notion suggests that the image with the product plus the celebrity should certainly come together, with the relevant attributes of the product being consistent with the attributes of the endorser to gain impact with increased memorability and recall (Misra and Beatty, 1990). This effort to represent product and assistance imagery in manners that insinuate them in to the consumer’s perceived needs and interests is definitely the primary activity of marketing.
A understanding of what consumers anticipate in sexuality role real reviews can help internet marketers in the analysis and organizing of the portrayal of product characteristics in several markets. Reputation This has been taken to heart simply by advertisers. The usage of celebrities to advertise aproduct is founded on the supposition thatgetting well-known personalities to symbolize abrand will certainly result to a higher degree ofadvertising appeal, believability, and recollect ascompared to anonymous models. Numerous research have mentioned the link between celebrity elegance and frame of mind changes toward issues, merchandise, and marketing evaluations (Caballero and Pride, 1984; Chaiken 1979; Kahle and Homer, 1985).
Other folks have advised that when a celebrity’s physical attractiveness matches up or perhaps is consonant with the occurrence and level to which the product or services advertised boosts attractiveness (i. e., eye-catching celebrity linked with an attractiveness- related product) there would be a good impact after product/service and advertisement assessments (Kahle and Homer 1985). Source Trustworthiness Source reliability suggests that the effectiveness of a message depends on the expertness and trustworthiness in the source (Hovland, Janis, and Kelley, 1953; Sternthal, Dholakia, and Leavitt 1978). Generally speaking, a message source with larger credibility is usually more effective than one with less credibility (Sternthal, Phillips, and Dholakia 1978).
Since higher amounts of source believability tend to always be associated with more positive attitudes toward the communication and lead to behavioral adjustments (Craig and McCann, 1978; Woodside and Davenport, 1974), advertisers will certainly opt to employ celebrities if perhaps they think that they have a high level of credibility. Analysts have identified three pieces as making up the trustworthiness construct: knowledgeor expertise, trustworthiness, and appearance or perhaps attractiveness (Baker and Churchill, 1977; Paul, 1982; Kahle and Homer, 1985; Maddox and Rogers, 1980). Attempts to gauge the impact believability on consumers’ intentions to buy indicate that just expertise experienced any significant influence on intentions to purchase.
There likewise seems to be an immediate correlation between believability and overall advertisements effectiveness, since measured simply by purchase intentions (Kamins, Brand, Hoeke, and Moe 1989). Credible spokespersons are identified to be moresocially and intellectually competent, andhave higher degrees of integrity which in turn makesthem more persuasive (Till &Busler, 1998). Brand Justesse The term congruence is used in many research areas, particularly company extension, co-branding, sponsoring, and endorsement. In most these circumstances, the aim should be to assess the suit between a brand and one other entity. A number of terms have been used (congruence, fit, link, match up effect, etc . ) nevertheless the general idea is the same.
In the field of movie star spokespersons, justesse was not genuinely defined as such until Misra and Beatty’s work (1990, p. 161). They deduced that it contained the factthat the extremely relevant characteristics of the prolocutor are consistent with the highly relevant attributes of the brand. Numerous authors have got studied specific aspects of celeb, such as male or female and pores and skin (Huston, d’Ouville and Willis, 2003) physical attractiveness (Kamins, 1990), although few include analyzed convenance in the broader sense.
Purchase/ Buying Intention Endorsers who have are enjoyed, perceived being trustworthy, experienced, and eye-catching, are thought to have more confident influences in advertisement believability and manufacturer image, which will contribute to purchase intentions. They will possess the ability to arrest and lure readers to an advertisement, thus producing the interaction more effective. Goldsmith et approach. (2000) said thatcredible endorsers have been proven to have amore positive effect on consumer’s frame of mind towards the advertisements.
Crediblespokespersons are perceived to get moresocially and intellectually skilled, andhave bigger levels of ethics which makesthem more powerful (Till &Busler, 1998). These kinds of credible endorsers have the ability tosignificantly increase order intentions(Liu ainsi que al., 3 years ago; Pornpitakpan, 2003; Erdogan, ain al., 2001). Past researches suggest that messagesource characteristics impact the consumer’sattitude towards advertisement which inturn affects their frame of mind towards the brand(Goldsmith et ing., 2000; Shimp& Gresham, 1985). Emotions and attitudes formedtowards an advertisement predict company attitudes (Yoo&MacInnis, 2005).
Additionally , Brown and Stayman (1992) claimed there is a consistent marriage betweenattitude towards the advertisement andattitude towards the brand and purchaseintentions. McKenzie ainsi que al. (1986) stated thatconsumers are said to have a tendency topurchase products coming from brands where theydevelop positive attitudes (Goldsmith et ‘s., 2000). There exists a consistent style showingthe effect of attitude on the brand upon purchase motives. Lineage/Bloodline/Heredity Promoting literature as well emphasizes the influence of cultural factors in marketing effectiveness (McCracken, 1989; Paek, 2005). McCracken (1989) contended that the success of celebrity-endorsed advertising depends on whether or not the endorser is definitely meaningful in a culture’s client values and norms.
In McCracken’s Which means Transfer Unit, he claims that celebrity endorsers contain a broad range of symbolism such as demographics, personality, and lifestyle. These types of meanings are transferred in the endorser to the product, and afterwards, from your product to the consumer. It is vital for marketers to understand the culture of their market to allow them to be successful.
This is due to consumers interact to advertising messages that are congruent with their culture, thereby worthwhile advertisers who understand that culture, and who tailor adverts to echo its values (Paek, 2005). Hofstede (1984) describes spokespersons as cultural heroes’ since they act as role models, and they have got characteristics which might be looked upon simply by society. Commonly marketers will be defined to offer the ability to control the actions of customers, although actually they may have neither power nor information for that. Online marketer may effect their obtaining behavior however, not control. Several individual and never individual have an effect on consumer behaviours.
Motives, perceptions, attitudes, experience, self strategy, values can be viewed as person factors. Rather than individual elements can be portrayed as, lifestyle, profession, relatives, reference teams. Culture Tradition is the sophisticated of values of individual societies, their very own roles, all their behavior, all their values, traditions, customs and traditions. Culture is an extremely important concept to understand consumer patterns and that has to be examined.
Tradition is the quantity of a shared purpose amongst members of society, customs, norms and traditions. The standard reason of person’s desire or perseverance is lifestyle. Geographical parts and made use of are essential in the formation of sub-culture. The preference of individuals who live very close to each other can be distinct. Individuals owned by different have different sub-culture principles, attitudes and social buildings of the people of different sub-culture.
These kinds of differences, sub-cultural segmentation of the market activity has made an essential variable. It is vital to know thecharacteristics of the sub-culture in creating the marketing mixture price, manufacturer identification, promotionalactivities and item positioning. Social groups, although they don’t display in a formal process of similar lifestyle shows are teams formed by simply individuals. There are numerous features of social class.
Initially, the behavior of members from the social course structure, education levels, perceptions, values and communication designs are similar, and these features are different from various other social school members. Second, individuals’ position is determined in respect to their communities. Third, sociable classes are identified not simply by according just one variable, likewise by these kinds of variables like education, profits, living region, activities and values.
Demographics Endorsement Features Physical Attractiveness Popularity Source Credibility Manufacturer Congruence Bloodline/Heredity/ Lineage Buying Goal H2 H1 Figure 1 . Research Construction H1: You will find no significant differences in the level of effectiveness of endorsement characteristics when participants are arranged according to demographics. H2: Endorsement attributes significantly lead to buying purpose. Methodology Analysis Design The investigation was done to know the effectiveness of endorsement features and its impact to buyer buying objective.
The study utilized Descriptive Analysis Method to determine the validation attributes as well as impact on consumer buying purpose. Descriptive study (Kothari, 2004) is used intended for studies that are concerned with explaining the characteristics of the particular group, whereas Analysis research decides the regularity with which anything occurs to its association with something else. The data was carefully examined and statistically interpreted while what they implied. The collection of data was in the form of forms that were floated to the individual respondents. These types of questionnaires covered specific group of questions in order to obtain useful data that would lead the researchers to meet the objectives that were set for the study.
Respondents Most the participants were randomly selected if the researchers sailed the forms. There were 200 respondents pertaining to the study. The respondents with this survey contains 101(50. 5%) males and 99(49.
5%) females. Regarding 127 (63. 5%) young professional and 73(36. 5%) students. It was discovered that respondents 105(52. 5%) are in the urban location and 95(47. 5) of those come from the countryside area. Almost all of the respondents’ nationalities were Filipino with the amount of 109 (54. 5%) respondents followed by the and also the with the range of 91 or a 45. five %. Info Gathering Instrument Relevant details, researches, and data were gathered through primary and secondary resources. Primary data and data were made with the use of forms made and floated by the researchers. These types of questionnaires had been sent out for the consumers whom are particularly students and youthful professional.
Portion of the questionnaire included direct inquiries regarding the ordering intention of consumers on a number of factors on the effectiveness with the advertisement. Secondary sources of data came from released materials just like journals, these, books that have been obtained from Heureux Louis University Library and also other sources discovered from trusted websites in the internet. Instrumentation The questionnaire consisted in two blocks. The first obstruct of the set of questions focuses on the demographic account of the respondents.
The second prevent of the customer survey is divided into five parts, with every single measuring the physical charm, popularity, supply credibility, company congruency and lineage/bloodline/heredity. On the left, focuses on the level of effectiveness and on the right targets the goal to buy. The Likert scale have been accustomed to examine the degree of its performance of the recommendation if it is successful (4) or highly inadequate (1) and exactly how consumers impact their obtaining intention in which (1) implies will not get to (4) will surely acquire. Reliability and Validity The questionnaire had been tested by using a pre-float, provided to 25 persons, conducted at New Lucban, Baguio Metropolis and was proven to be trusted.
Cronbach’s first was used to prove the interior and trustworthiness of the customer survey. It is widely used when Likert wanted to identify the dependability of multiple questions within a survey. Dependability Statistic to get the customer survey was done with a result of. 863 Cronbach’s alpha ratefor the level of success and.
877 for the intention to buy with a general rate of. 901 which indicates a high level of consistency and reliability pertaining to the level of the effectiveness of a set of questions. An item-total statistics was also carried out, which means the value of the issue in a study and with Cronbach’s first rate of. 851. Consequently , the questions have the advanced of consistency and stability and it is valid to use in the survey.
Effects and Dialogue This analyze aims to identify the endorsement attributes that influence the purchasing/buying objective of the customers. Endorsement Features Table 1 . Level of Effectiveness of Recommendation Attributes Indicators Mean SD Sig 1 . Physical Charm 2 . 8795. 40254.
1000 2 . Recognition 2 . 6075. 30141. 000 3. Source Credibility a few. 1040. 46763. 000 4. Brand Congruency 3. 1550. 61332. 000 5. Lineage/Bloodline/Hereditary 2 . 7795. 53980. 1000 Physical Appeal The overall effects revealed that the physical appeal of the endorser has a imply average of 2. 8795 (? = zero. 01) comes with an effect towards the consumer on how they promote clothing. The moment purchasing clothing, most buyers look into just how endorser would feel comfort and look look good to them. Physical Attractiveness is a single important feature. As consumers wants a product to satisfy certain specific requires. The benefit is usually a factor that consumers consider when getting clothing.
Various researches in advertising and communication advised that physical attractiveness was an important cue in how an individual judge another person in the beginning 30 views. It is because beauty usually made an improved first impression. Because of increasing use of celebrity certification, attractiveness became an important dimensions of supply credibility (Ohanian, 1991). Acceptance Popularity was measured using 12 things; an overall imply score of two.
6075 (? = 0. 01) found out that there is a moderate impact with the popularity of the endorser regarding its effectiveness. Things regarding political figures and performers endorsing acquired results, which can be only a bit effective. This implies that deciding on someone who is going to endorse a particular product also has an effect towards the consumer.
Leventhal (1994 in Miller 1994) suggests that movie star endorsements are a high-risk, high-reward scenario and there is often a human factor that you by no means know, and you have to ponder the potential risks versus the potential benefits. McCracken (1989) suggests that recommendation is successful, if the properties with the celebrity are created the real estate of the backed product. However , the study simply by Walker et al. (1992) found which the endorser, that might have selected attributes which can be desirable intended for endorsing the product, then again, she or he might also include other, much more closely linked attributes which can be inappropriate for any specific product.
Source Credibility Respondents suggest their degree of effectiveness when an endorser possesses trustworthiness and expertise. Supply Credibility products was tested with an overall mean score of 3. 1040 (? sama dengan 0. 01) and found away that it is somewhat effective. An honest/sincere person endorses food scored a highest suggest of 3. 4400 (? sama dengan 0. 01) while a dependable/reliable person endorses food items score the minimum mean of two. 8450 (? = 0. 01). This means that the character of the buyers is moderately effective since the important of the endorser through the knowledge or expertise.
Resource credibility was the degree that the receiver would believe the source has certain degree of relevant know-how and/or expertise and they want to believe the information offered by the original source (Ohanian, 1990). At first, resource credibility basically meant endorser’s credibility in an advertisement (Aronson, Turner and Carlsmith, 1963). Eventually it had been considered as key point which might have an effect on consumers’ purchase intentions and attitudes toward advertising (Lutz, MacKenzie, and Belch, 1983). Brand Congruency An overall common mean of three.
1550 (? = zero. 01) learned that certification on this items are moderately successful. Endorsing gizmos by a person person that fits his persona have an effect towards the consumer. With an overall mean result of 3. 3650 (? = 0. 01) placed the highest by respondents. While on the furthermore, an individual that endorses food items that matches his lifestyle acquired the mean of 2. 9500 (? = 0. 01) being the lowest in terms of manufacturer congruency.
The definition of congruence is utilized in several study areas, specifically brand file format, co-branding, recruiting, and endorsement. In all these types of cases, the goal is to assess the fit between a brand and another enterprise (a cool product category, another brand, an event, or perhaps an individual) (Fleck and Quester, 2007). A variety of conditions have been applied (congruence, fit, link, match up effect, etc . ) but the standard concept may be the same.
Lineage/Bloodline/ Hereditary Participants indicated which the mean for that of an individual with an alien foreign citizenship who have endorses devices 2 . 7795 (. 03817) revealed that it is slightly powerful in relation with their lineage/bloodline/heredity. The complete results says the lineage/bloodline/heredity of the endorser has a mean average of 2. 7795 (. 03817) posseses an effect for the consumer on how they promote gadgets. This implies that most customers tend to get gadgets which can be endorsed by simply aliens who may have a foreign nationality. Consumer Buying Intention Table 2 . Objective to Buy based upon the Validation Attributes Signals Mean SECURE DIGITAL Sig 1 ) Physical Elegance 2 . 7215. 29872.
000 2 . Popularity 2 . 3820. 57176. 500 3. Origin Credibility installment payments on your 9005. 34793. 000 four. Brand Congruency 2 . 9450. 42494. 000 5. Lineage/Bloodline/Hereditary 2 . 4885. 43677. 500 Physical Charm Respondents suggested their objective to buy for the endorser is physically attractive and was measured with an overall imply score of 2. 721 (? = zero. 01) An elegant person who endorses gadgets has got the highest indicate of 2. 5850 (? = 0. 01) while a sexy individual who encourages food items report the lowest suggest of 2. 6350 (? = 0. 01) This indicates the decision from the consumers is they most likely is not going to buy because the impact of the endorser with regards through his/her physical attractiveness.
Acceptance Popularity was measured applying 12 things; an overall indicate score of 2. 3820 (? = zero. 01) revealed that consumers will most likely not to buy associated with the popularity of the endorser regarding consumer’s buying intention. Athletes supporting food items graded a mean of 2. 9000 (? = zero.
01) which is the highest price among the 12 items. A politician whom endorses apparel has the lowest rate using a rated suggest of 1. 7500 (? = 0. 01). This implies that athletes who have endorse food products have an excellent influence within a consumer’s objective to buy merchandise. Hence, a politician supporting clothing is not influential as compared with the latter.
Food Products especially Cereals has used high quality athletes to grace the cover with their box for many years. Now, nowadays, the use of celebrity athletes to endorse food products is mainstream advertising. Michael jordan Phelps and Frosted Flakes. Eli and Peyton Manning promoting Double-Stuff-Oreos. No doubt, these celebrity sportsmen can sell items.
Source Credibility Respondents suggest their purpose to buy for the endorser have got trustworthiness and expertise. Origin Credibility things were scored with an overall mean rating of 2. 9005 (? sama dengan 0. 01) and found away that they will almost certainly buy. Benefits of this study found that, honesty and sincerity was significantly associated with buying objective, in addition , this kind of result coincides with study’s result of (Yoon, et approach,.
1998) as they found that three measurements of endorser credibility have got normal significant with buying intention. Numerous empirical studies have identified that credible endorsers absolutely influence client attitudes toward brand, advertisements, and consumers’ purchase intentions (Agrawal& Kamakura, 1995; Kelman 2006; Amos et al., 2008). Brand Congruency An overall average suggest of 2. 9450 (? sama dengan 0. 01) found out the fact that intention of shoppers are most likely to obtain as there is certainly brand congruency. Endorsing gizmos by someone person that complements his figure have an effect towards consumer.
With an overall indicate result of 3. 0250 (? = 0. 01) rated the highest by the respondents. It can be similar based upon the countrywide survey underneath Solar, in which 57 percent of selfies said their priorities for two years would be to acquire gizmos while 49 percent likewise cited having a car/vehicle. While regarded as the me, myself, me era, the Sun Lifestyle study advised that these selfies also aspired to be fiscally independent with a business and properties while waiting to get started on their own families. This might be because participants come from the so-called selfie generationa new strain of young adults devoid of financial dependents who kind a growing consumer powerhouse from this country.
Their particular typical two-year priority is to splurge upon lifestyle-related consumer items like gizmos and vehicles. (Dumlao, 2013) Lineage/Bloodline/Hereditary The complete results revealed that the lineage/bloodline/heredity of the endorser has a mean average of 2. 2885 (? = 0. 01) this implies that most buyers will most likely not to buy. However , intended for food items recommended by either an individual with alien international citizenship or possibly a natural born Filipino, the people are most likely to buy. This may be due to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Requirements where food belongs to the Natural and Physical needs which will must be happy first although fashion and gadgets in higher amounts like Interpersonal Needs and Self-esteem needs.
Demographics and Endorsement Features Table 3. Demographics and Endorsement Features Indicators Demographics Mean SECURE DIGITAL Sig Physical Attractiveness Philippine 3. 0156. 41481. 1000 Foreigner installment payments on your 7165. 32016 Popularity Non-urban 2 . 5705. 25552.
002 Urban installment payments on your 6410. 33532 Source Credibility Male several. 0703. 59170. 000 Feminine 3. 1384. 29057 Scholar 3. 3671. 45858. 001 Young Specialist 2 . 9528. 40254 Country 3. 1179. 29499. 000 Urban a few. 0914. 58262 Filipino a few. 1991. 61002. 000 Foreigner 2 . 9901. 11358 Manufacturer Congruency Male 3. 2475. 73900. 000 Female three or more. 0606. 43444 Student 3. 3356. 49367. 000 Young Professional 3. 0512. 65196 Rural a few. 0084. 38028. 000 Urban 3. 2876. 74275 Philippine 3. 3771. 67311. 1000 Foreigner 2 . 8890. 39594 Lineage/Bloodline/Hereditary Rural 2 . 7011. 42011. 500 Urban installment payments on your 8505. 62236 Filipino installment payments on your 7055. 64000. 000 Foreigner 2 . 8681.
37175 Physical Attractiveness In the first of Table 3, that shows that physical attractiveness of your endorser can be significant and it has an impact in terms of their nationality. This implies that it is vital for an endorser to get the physical features of a person whether Filipino or foreign to make the advertisements effective. Bers and Rodin (1984) remarked that children significantly focus their particular comparisons in attributes they regard as personally important as they grow older, with physical attractivene