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This analysis will consider the dynamics of a volleyball after it has been served. The main reason I chose this topic is really because I love to play volleyball, and I do it nearly everyday. Not long ago I suffered with a again injury that prevented me personally from serving. Now that it’s mainly healed, I’m beginning to serve again. Now that serving is an option personally, if I want to actually provide in a game, I have to prove to my trainer that I may serve properly. Some factors that significantly impact the potency of a serve include how high the ball moves, the time period the receiving group has to go on to the ball, and the speed of the ball.


My aim is to identify the difference inside the dynamics of a volleyball when it is served employing various strategies. Methods of providing include the underhand serve, position topspin, standing float, hop topspin, and jump drift. By recording my teammates’ serves and analyzing the video footage applying Logger Expert, I was in a position to create graphs that style the path in the ball for each and every type of serve. [*] The next image describes how I assessed the serve by placing a point where ball is situated in each body of the online video to make Position vs . Time graph intended for an underhand serve. The style is just a overview of procedure, so it’s not really a complete chart yet.

Underhand Serve: Sample Calculation

An underhand serve can be where the machine holds the ball in a single hand around waist-height and hits the underside of the ball with the different fist. This is a very simple method of offering, but it can act as a fantastic basis of comparability for the other types of serves.

Formula that versions the Position or Time for underhand: Maximum level. This influences the difficulty of the serve, because the higher the ball should go, the easier it is for the defender to get at it.

Additionally, this value could be located by locating the value which is why the derivative of this function is comparable to zero, since the ball is definitely instantaneously sleeping when it actually reaches it’s optimum height.


The speed of the volleyball is an important facet of how hard a serve is to receive, the faster the ball is going, the harder it is for a protecting player to create an accurate complete. The velocity also impacts the amount of time the defensive gamer has to move to the ball, which will be assessed later. To be able to determine the vertical element of the velocity from the ball, the derivative must be taken from the Position or Time chart (this chart only accounts for vertical location, thus taking derivative will simply yield the vertical element of velocity).

This element of the velocity with the ball launched at a height of three feet will be evaluated. This height was chosen because this is the approx . height from which the protection on the opposing team comes in contact with the ball.

Solve to get using the quadratic formula: The value for which the serve-receiver will come in contact with the ball may not be negative, therefore the velocity in the ball if the receiver moves it will occur at mere seconds.

Thus of the football when the opposing team gets it is. The horizontal element of the velocity remains unknown, however it can be determined using trigonometry.

The significance for? is definitely unknown, and can be calculated using the following formulation where g is the acceleration due to gravity, v is definitely the resultant speed at, and is the time for which the volleyball is air-borne (the time it takes pertaining to the volleyball to hit the ground). The following equation gives the value for at the launch point, so the value can be directly replaced into the formula this will work, because the horizontally velocity would not change in this model.


Another important aspect in a serve’s effectiveness is how long of a time the defensive group has to reach and go the ball after it is served. There are two ways to measure this. The first is by calculating how long the ball is in the air. This can be dependant on finding the time where the opposition team obtains the ball. This has been determined to get 1 . 82336 seconds. This kind of assumes which the receiving group has full vision in the ball as soon as it is served, and can immediately tell in which the ball is going and move to that location. However , because of opposing players blocking the defense’s vision, and possible confusion concerning where the ball will actually property, especially if blowing wind is a element, it is extremely difficult for a protective player to find out where to go instantly when the ball is served. Thus, an even more accurate method to determine the period a defensive player may use to move to the ball is to find the time frame for which the ball with the air following it has handed over the net. This works mainly because, even if the protective player can easily see the ball before it is about over the net, they generally take this the perfect time to process where it is going, and they begin to move following your ball explains the net. That is not necessarily occur when the ball is at is actually peak elevation, thus time at which the ball provides a horizontal shift of 30 feet has to be calculated (this is the length between the end of the court, where the football is dished up, and the net).

Shift formula: We all assume not any horizontal speeding of the ball, so the equation becomes. The time the recipient has to go on to the ball is the difference on time between when the ball goes by over the net and once it is received:

This time doesn’t seem quite right, considering the fact that from the photo it looks like the ball crosses the web at what looks to end up being very close to the maximum elevation, which happens at. What this informs me is that the horizontally velocity has to be incorrect. I am going to continue to use these mathematical processes with the various other serves and record the calculations, and hopefully the results may help me figure out what exactly it is that induced the horizontally velocity to be incorrect.

Graphs of various other Serves

Standing Topspin. Standing topspin is a great overhand serve where the machine contacts the ball with their hand roughly one arm’s length above their mind. The storage space snaps her wrist when ever coming in contact with the ball, which provides the ball a forward spin, while indicated by name.

Standing Float

A position float provide is a great overhand serve that is nearly the same as a standing topspin provide. The only big difference is that instead of snapping their wrist, the server strikes the center with the ball which has a firm palm, which results in the ball having little to no ” spin ” as it explains the net. Since it has no spin, air currents will often trigger the ball not to relocate a straight straight route, making it look like it’s “floating around. “

Leap Topspin

In a jump topspin serve, the hardware throws the ball over their hands and takes a four-step procedure and gets to hit the ball, snapping their wrist as they are exposed to it. This kind of motion is very similar to spiking the ball, which allows the participant to hit the ball with extreme topspin”much more so than from a standing position.

Equation that models Position vs . Moment for jump topspin:

Really interesting that the leading pourcentage is so greater than some of the other graphs. This is probably due to the frontward spinning motion the ball has, that causes the ball to property much deeper from in which it was dished up than it will otherwise. So it makes sense which the leading agent would be larger, because it vertically stretches the graph.

Jump Drift. For a jump float provide, the server generally takes fewer steps in an approach than in a jump topspin serve, and in addition they hit the ball which has a firm hands so the ball has no spin.

Equation that models Situation vs . Coming back jump drift:

The for this chart is lower than for jump topspin, which can be likely must be jump drift requires fewer steps leading up to when the hardware jumps, resulting in a smaller hop. However , the for the two jump topspin and leap float will be higher than all of the other charts because the ball was struck from a better point.

Analyzing and Comparing the Provides

Now that I have my personal method of determining all of the important values and a model for each and every type of provide, I can compare the data. Based upon the principles for enough time the shielding player must move to go the ball, it seems the calculations must be incorrect, there’s no way the fact that player may have a negative length of time. This value was typically dependent upon the changing horizontal component of the speed, which in ideal circumstances will be constant, nevertheless for this analysis, it seems that it was in fact necessary to take into account. When using the equation I actually used a worth of actually zero for the horizontal velocity, but this kind of clearly was obviously a source of error in the calculations. Thus, to obtain accurate results, I would have to create a unit that makes up air resistance to accurately determine both the lateral velocity with the volleyball and just how much time a defensive gamer has to proceed to pass the volleyball.

After all of this work, it was pretty discouraging to see that the only factor I would be able to evaluate regarding the serves would be the maximum elevation of the serve and the approximate vertical speed. However , I later noticed that I had overlooked something during my graphs. Logger Pro includes a capability that can allow me to determine the actual horizontally and up and down velocities of the volleyball, in order to at least use the info from this to compare the kinds of serves.

Conclusion: Deciding the Best Method of Offering

Leap topspin has a significantly larger resultant velocity than each of the other types of provides, the rest are about the same aside from the underhand serve. One other connection that could be drawn is that jump will serve have bigger velocities than standing will serve. Additionally , topspin serves are faster than their drift serve equivalent.

Time the ball is in the air for correlates with the velocity of the ball”topspin jump gets the best benefits with the quickest time, after that jump drift, standing topspin, float, and underhand respectively. The maximum height of each provide is about the same, except for underhand, which is higher and jump float, which is slightly less than the rest. The lower the maximum level of the serve the better, because the ball is easier to maneuver to whether it goes higher, so the jump float is most effective regarding this.

Depending on these effects, I think that a majority of effective serve is likely the jump topspin, because their velocity is really much greater as well as the time the ball with the air is indeed much lower compared to the other types of acts. Jump topspin is one of the tougher serves to find out, so I experienced always been concerned to undertake learning it. Great I’m delighted I know just how much more effective it’s going to based on my results from this kind of investigation, therefore i know it will be worth it!

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