Supervision, Project

Table of ContentsPage 1 . Executive Summary (207 words) installment payments on your Introduction (280 words) 3.

Project Explanation Phase (949 words) 3. 1Problems Found during the Task 4. The Project Manager (790 words) 4. 1Assessment of Kris Hodgkins your five. Risk Management (938 words) five. 1Evaluating Risikomanagement 6. Miller’s Dilemma (821 words) six. Final Conversation (398 words) 8. Bottom line (142 words) 9. Appendix 10. Recommendations 1 . EXEC SUMMARY Becoming a successful motel operator, the Regency Motel Group (RHG) has the experience, the resources plus the capability of taking care of the Regency Plaza Job.

So the query is, why has the project been dogged by various problems? Via slow sales growth, disappointed customers to increasing costs, internal issue as well as work delays, record is comprehensive. One major reason for this appears to be poor planning. With proper preparing and job management in place, scheduling and coordination is manufactured much easier. Any kind of arising complications could be discovered and solved which could lead to a fraction of the time and investment property on rectification. This would in turn enable additional time and resources to be invested in the improvement of the works which will result in the conclusion and achievement of the project.

The RHG has established a reputation and a brand brand associated with great service, luxury and an extensive range of services. Failure or perhaps further delays on this project would be bad for their popularity. This goes to show the importance of task management regarding the organization’s strategic mission. This record will examine how the Regency Plaza job was maintained and implications for upcoming project managers to take note of. 2 . Introduction Lewis (2005, P23) mentioned that haste makes waste in fact it is very true.

However in the “hurry up and get it done world, there is little patience with “wasting time on everything planning. The end result? Rework and rectification, which can be 100 percent squander. Experts believed that a third of the cost with the average project goes to improving errors through reworks. Having said the above, there is still no flawless project process. Exactly why so? It is because we are all human beings, and individuals tend to make mistakes. In situations in which time, cost and methods are of special concern, project anagers tend to make even more irrational decisions, resulting in more re-work. The Regency Plaza case study is known as a key case in point. So how may these problems be minimized? What jobs managers can easily do to minimize these mistakes is to ensure that there is right planning, task design and project managing. Projects are stepping rocks of business strategy as well as success may be the lifeblood of each and every organization RHG is well known on her luxurious fittings and excessive service top quality in the motel industry. The Regency Plaza project was formulated employing this strategy in the challenging industry environment.

The role in the project manager (which in this case is Hodgkins), is to take responsibility intended for the overall accomplishment of the job. However , this is simply not seen in the Regency Plaza project. Since indicated, this kind of project has become racked numerous uncertainties. This essay will evaluate the next: 1) The Project Classification Phase of Regency Plaza, 2) The Role with the Project Supervisor, 3) The entire Risk Analysis, and lastly 4) The Ramifications for the Project Administrator facilitating the pace from the project. several. Project Classification Phase

The general project classification phrase goes according to the subsequent cycle picture which shows the interrelationship between the 3 stages of project definition. Goals RHG had a very clear goal at heart of what they wanted to attain in this job development, that is certainly, to develop Regency Plaza. This is certainly their first attempt venturing into building luxury real estate units together with hotel rooms. The financial goal was to earn projected low profits of $134. some million and net revenue of $26 million. Inside the development of Regency Plaza Task, luxury condominium units are usually included.

The management failed to take into account the fact that they are venturing into a new business territory including long-term household condominium models. Hotel guests and condominium residents have different levels of expectations not to mention the simple fact that the Regency Plaza can be described as luxury development. While staying established and successful in their main organization is good, most likely this has also contributed to the over-confidence from the management and their failure setting appropriate reasonable goals.

Task management priority matrix was first produced to identify the many levels of project priorities with regards to time, performance and price which interelate to the goals set. Task Priority Matrix | | | | | | | | | | | | This would represent the following to get the Regency Plaza Project:? If the task is in back of schedule, there will be a reduction in the completion amount of time in order to successfully market the merchandise?

If the project is lurking behind schedule, price budget will be increased to speed up job? The original specifications fixed can not be compromised Technical specs When the project management team under the management of job manager Hodgkins was installation by RHG management, ample amounts of information/data/specifications was supplied. It was a tough period to get Hodgkins as she necessary to undertake various decisions of deciding on the project’s main specifications. For instance, she were required to decide on the number of units that might be offered if the project was completed.

From RHG’s point of view, obtaining the optimum profit from the 96 models would be regarded as a smart decision, whereas considering the duration and deadline in the project, selecting to build even more units can be tedious with terms of planning and meeting deadlines but also with regards to cost when it comes to materials. As well, one of the key strategies of the expansion was allowing for buyers the choice of customising their units. As such, the decision to opt for more units is actually a core decision which might greatly affect the project’s primary specifications whereby the rest of the technical specs that follow will be affected as well.

Tasks and Responsibilities Because ambitious because RHG may be, following the idea development, they not only left key decisions but as well the majority of the project responsibilities and decision-making power to Hodgkins. Nevertheless , this simple fact was not communicated to the rest of the project participants, resulting in many people influencing the project manager’s decision. RHG management had failed to organize the task and responsibilities in a systematic fashion where there is definitely proper details dissemination and a tight chain of command word.

The administration also did not supervise and keep a series of checks and control for the entire job. It was as well noted the management had a different job team focusing on the motel but the same contractor. It is crucial that the two teams function closely as any delay simply by either get together would influence on the other as could possibly be seen the moment construction slowed down on the motel nearing the completion particular date due to issues with the condominium units. Discord and unhappiness with the builder and conversely also influenced the other. Decision making process hindered simply by too many functions pic] 1 . Complications Encountered through the Regency Plaza Project Not able to Complete Just before Scheduled Time In the case of the Regency Plaza Project, the hiccup came across by the task manager was behind schedule If a obvious and satisfactory time frame was pre-planned inside the project definition phrase, associated with such a problem occurring will be greatly reduced. The project administrator had did not allocate including an amount of time/duration into the entire project period as a a contingency plan to count on in the event of key phrase failure or perhaps delays..

Inside the initial soft stage with the contractor, the lowest bid selected and the picked contractor was persuaded to slice off three months from their date. This was arranged with the knowning that the fb timeline was tight but with nominal changes and disruptions, the time line can still be achieved. With this in mind, the project supervisor should note that no disruptions or delays could be tolerated. There likewise appears to be deficiencies in proper checks and progress updates, as if this was present, the problem would be flagged previously and actions to resolve this could be established.

Making decisions hindered simply by multiple stake holders The decision-making method, right from the conceptualisation stage had to move through tedious discussions with the stakeholders. The nature of the project alone, with two separate task teams (hotel and condo) as well as the customisation element, meant that while the responsibility laid with Hodgkins and she was tasked to make major decisions, she got difficulty doing so as your woman needed to support and take those various stakeholders into consideration although trying to receive the optimum profit/benefits.

If the main decision maker has been determined during the task definition term, a systematic stream utilising the choice making matrix should be accustomed to avoid the trouble of a lot of decision-makers. some. the Job Manager The role of the project supervisor involves including, planning, arranging, controlling and leading. Hodgkins needs to be capable to properly communicate and combine the crossing points of functional departments, the subcontractors and other stakeholders. Inside the initial organizing stage, Hodgkins needs to recognize the task every stakeholder can be involved in plus the targeted finalization deadline.

This will likely provide a better picture of the resources availabile at each level of the job. Hodgkins is required to manage and organize the project crew that was put together on her behalf by Regency. This handling role needs the task manager to plan out the objectives and processes instructed to reach the final goal. Pursuing which, the assigned operations need to be executed and at various stages, the results should be tracked and tallied to make certain the anticipated outcomes are reached. Finally, project director must be versatile and behave decisively. There is a eed to constantly keep a record and assess the cause of any differences and re-evaluate the whole process and make the required changes. A project manager ought to lead by example since it is a highly visible management design that will build and preserve cooperative relationships. The skills essential as a task manager can be as stick to, 1 . Very good communication helps to ensure that valuable info related to the project status is offered in a timely and successful manner. installment payments on your Ability to are a group will allow associates to understand all their roles and responsibilities on the project and work collaboratively. 3.

Listening skills is important because great listening skills is needed to really hear trying to understand what others on the job are trying to declare 4. Preparing skills will help the job manager offer each functional department a clearing schedule of their work. 5. Salesmanship techniques , influencing devoid of direct expert and obtaining win-win situations 4. 1Assessment of Kris Hodgkins Hodgkins dismissed Farley’s, a renowned condominium marketing consultant, advice on building bigger but less units. Her focus was to hit the projected product sales targets and failed to consider the merits of Fraley’s suggestion.

She also realized that personalization had interrupted the completion of the task, but did not try to convince the supervision on letting go of the idea. If perhaps she experienced done so with the evidence of the increase in price, wastage of materials and potential problems from consumers that may most likely lead to problems to the company’s reputation, the management may have reconsidered their commitment. Hodgkins select not to discuss with the customers about the choice on designing individual units, as the lady felt that a majority of of the customizing could only be done following your building was completed.

This kind of resulted in the wasting of materials and resources because the base style that was constructed had to be ripped out and remanufactured according to the buyers’ changes. This has also triggered a delay in the job flow mainly because with imperfect drawings the main contractors is unable to get correct quotes in the subcontractors. By simply not digesting and distributing vital details promptly, miscommunication occurs, the effort process is definitely lengthened plus the pressure is put on the final recipient. A vital example of this is actually the situation in which Hodgkins only delivers drawings from the interior designer to O’Brian and Sinclair when she experienced the time.

An instance where misunderstanding results is definitely when Hodgkins never talks about to Helen Miller the reason why the bills the lady received are incredibly expensive is because of the complexity of the operate and the unfinished design provided by Susan Randolph. Incomplete control and poor planning high is no right task malfunction structure in position resulted in continuous changes to design even while the opening day is concluding in. This causes the already restricted timeline being stretched even further, not to mention the fluctuation in manpower, increasing costs and subsequent even more delay to the project.

As i have said earlier, the two project managers from Regency are working as different agencies although the main objective is good for the building being completed faster. Furthermore the moment Hodgkins understand that sales was not doing very well, she did not discuss with Farley and the product sales staff upon ways to improve sales physique. It can be concluded that Hodgkins is not a good project manager. The lady failed to connect vital data to the stakeholders. She was given a team to help for the sales but did not generate good use of it. It had been only right up until things were getting out of side that the lady called for a gathering.

If she had succeeded in doing so earlier, this may have lowered the amount of time and resources squandered. There is also proof of poor control and bank checks, bad preparing and a refusal to deal with issues boost management of problems. 5. Risk Management The Risk Management Method consists of 4 stages which are elaborated beneath, 5. 1Stage 1: Recognize , Risk Identification Recognition ensures that actions and eventualities are concentrated upon certain risks. Actions may then always be developed specifically target this risk and attempt to lessen its effects.

Risk Malfunction Structure i. Complexity ” The strategy of customisation of condominium units resulted in the postpone of the project’s completion. Hodgkins did not identify and evaluate such hazards when the lady took about this project. If she acquired done so, it could have allowed her to factor this in the moment assessing the contractors and costs and would likewise have given her ample time to develop different types of strategy to deal with the problem. ii. Subcontractors ” Time was an issue during the building process when making alterations to the condominium.

This would have been appropriate if the concern had been addressed at the beginning and contingency ideas were made. Nevertheless Hodgkins desired to take the possibility of hoping customers might settle for the fact that was given instead. This was a curious decision that your woman made in watch of the fact that customisation was a feature for the condos as well as the target market contains wealthy lovers who were very likely to have higher expectations and would want some thing personalised and unique. It would not end up being surprising and would the truth is be expected that they would go for customisation regardless of the additional expense to them.

This thinking error by simply Hodgkins led to problems with respect to work schedules and costs. Once modifications were needed, the process of creating these alterations would have weeks. This placed a lot of pressure on the technicians. iii. Structure Management , Due to the customization option open to the customers, Hodgkins was required to guarantee proper managing of the general construction in the project. Any delay about any facet of the project, eg the delay in completing floor surfaces would have a chain effect and cause delays to other regions of the task (i.. the Millers’ case) and bring about additional costs. While the customers are willing to pay for the cost of modifications that they have built, the extra costs associated with the stalling of the whole project would not be all their responsibility. Because the deal between RHG and the installers was a set sum deal, as such the contractors can be extremely cautious of committing to anything. 2 . Stage 2: Analyse , Risk Checks Rank dangers according to the possibility that the risk will occur and also the intensity of the occurrence.

The ranking is normally done applying words such as ‘Severe’ or ‘Highly/Likely’ which can be then linked to numerical principles that can be increased together. The results can then be ranked, while using highest amount the one which the majority of requires attention. For Regency Plaza Job, the major potential risks happen to be plotted under Risk Management Analysis Matrix | | | |Contractors- Period Length | | | | |Complexity |Construction Administration | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 5 four Likelihood three or more 2 you 1 2 3 4 5 Impact

Red zone”Major Risk Discolored zone-Moderate risk Green zone”Minor risk 5. 3Stage several: Planning , Risk Response Development Dangers cannot be disregarded. They may be suffered, treated, used in another get together or ended. Below are a lot of plans that can be used to take on the major risks: i. Intricacy , Solutions of strategy to reduce possible risk damage will be receiving the advice offered by Farley on building bigger units. In the event Farley’s advice had been adopted, the risk of difficulty will be reduced due as there will be smaller buyers and conversely much less complications and liaison required.

This will result in lesser possibility of modifications and the progress of the project can be increased tremendously, while additional expense due to holds off is prevented. In terms of the consideration of revenue, bigger units can be priced bigger thereby making up for the lesser models. Another substitute will be as i have said before, in the event Hodgkins experienced identified the chance of complexity upon taking up this project, she will then have necessary time to plan out and tackle the origin of this risk.

Other than taking into consideration sufficient contingency time, she’d also be capable to appeal to management and stakeholder to lengthen enough time scheduled intended for completion. This additional time will enable extra marketing in the units and possible advice from pleased buyers which in turn would help in the gradual sales. 2. Subcontractors , If the issue had been discussed earlier then a visible platform could have been set up with satisfactory and fixed deadlines that would cause little or no complications to the installers and allow the changes to be manufactured before important areas of the condominiums had been constructed.

This kind of difference would also support avoid the majority of complaints by customers relating to delays and slow services. iii. Structure Management , This again could have been planned more effectively in case the scope of change was correctly described and decided at an before date, permitting more efficient usage of resources and better planning. 5. 4Step 4: Managing , Risk Response Control Hodgkins should certainly monitor the project development, do a comprehensive risk evaluation, anticipate conceivable risks and handle unexpected new hazards.

All these ought to be updated to project associates and stakeholders during standard meetings. Concerns should be accepted and fixed and not hidden and refused. All the team members should be urged to identify complications, mistakes and new hazards, and ensure that constant conversation and data flow numerous project associates. Hodgkins also needs to make an effort to communicate and highlight issues specifically to the hotel project crew who will end up being directly afflicted with any concerns on the condominium project. six. Miller’s Problem

In view of the Millers’ dilemma, Hodgkins was found to be trapped within a tight place with just five options to consider. Option you: The initially option of informing the Millers that it was past too far to personalize the unit may have a terrible impact. The buyer-seller relationship and reputation of Regency Plaza and its management would be set at stake if the Millers, whom are effective and important members with the Boston cultural circles, would have been to spread the info amongst their very own social circle (who are the potential target market of the project).

Set up Millers plan to undertake this choice, extra time and coordination can be required because changes to the machine might involve shutting down the entire floors, hindering building on additional units and causing even more delay to work schedules. Concurrently, the positive effect of this option will not be beneficial to Hodgkins either as it may make not any significant influence on the already delayed work schedule. Option 2: The second option would require pushing throughout the changes. This could reduce the sum of demolition work essential and keep the Millers pleased.

However , on the macro view, putting the unit on keep would hold off schedules and have impact on equally direct and indirect costs, eg delaying the resort project and thereby losing possible cash flow from occupancy. Should the Millers decide to remove this option and the changes take a longer period, the cost legal responsibility during the holding phase is a grey location which will add on to the complexity of the problem. Choice 3: The third option to seek the services of a small standard contractor to finish the unit ahead of closing might not resolve the Millers’ challenges.

Extra over head expenses would be extremely costly and it will be tedious for Hodgkins to handle two general contractors. The possibility of disputes and arguments on jobs and duties might arise between the several groups of installers, adding difficulty and wait to the job. This may as well impact the morale of worker in Kelly Construction thereby affecting quality of. But the benefit of hiring tiny contractors could be beneficial looking at it via a tiny view. Becomes the Millers’ unit could be accomplished when works on other units could possibly be carried out at the same time.

This would enable works being completed and costs will not be in the mind by Kelly Construction which usually would lower any other hassle. On hindsight, this option could be appealing to the Millers along with they could get their unit on time. But , the price of fulfilling the Millers by increasing management expenditures significantly could possibly be too just the thing for Hodgkins to justify purchasing. Option 4: The fourth choice involves blocking work and handing more than an empty product. The advantage of this method will be the fact that Millers could finish the system at their own convenience when works on different units could possibly be done at the same time.

However , Hodgkins could be trapped inside the dilemma if perhaps she would have been to execute this method. On top of the truth that the costs have already been received and operate would need to be undone, the bank’s unwillingness to provide money may add on towards the Millers’ stress, which could always be extremely bad to the trustworthiness of RHG. Regency would lose control over the project and could be forced to manage other passengers who want this option. In a structure sense, there can be future issues with works to units made by external contractors. Option 5:

In general, the past option of going the Millers to a different device on a bigger floor would be a more feasible and win-win alternative. It could generate the very least negative impact on both as well as cost. Above all, all parties ” the Millers, Kelly Building, Susan Randolph, Hodgkins and the RHG, could gain from this approach. A greater floor device is of a greater value. Giving to move the Millers presently there (it features course suggested that RHG absorbs the retail price difference), will help to “compensate the Millers for any hassle caused.

This move would be a positive long term investment in exchange for the satisfaction in the Millers and sustainability with the positive impression for RHG. Likewise, going the Millers to a higher floors in which room work hadn’t yet started would buy additional time to get the installers as no demolition job is required. There is no wastage of elements and significant cost savings can be anticipated. Leslie Randolph might also have a larger time frame to generate changes to the designs although cost examination and approval could be completed concurrently without affecting the schedule.

Consideringg the fact that sales characters are not high, there will not be any kind of significant inconvenience caused to RHG and fact this move may well assist in sales if the Millers are positive about the Regency Plaza Project and this is distributed in their social group. 7. Final discussion The above evaluation offers revealed that the Regency Plaza was not very well managed. A major factor contributing to the failure can be poor preparing. The task seems to be within a mess as roles and responsibilities are not properly described and allocated, the decision- making process can be muddled and is not very well communicated. you will find no right checks. These types of problems could possibly be easily defeat if delegation of jobs and duties was conveyed clearly (refer to appendix on RAM). Every adjustment introduced within the project period can possess certain effect on the level of success of the project (Lock 1992). Each changes could take a few weeks so that rates could be gathered and evaluated. In the case of the modification with the Millers’ unit, this caused the wait of the scheduled completion of the twelfth floors and in addition has affected the protection and infrastructure of the building.

As such the risk management feature was not well taken care of. In the event the issues had been addressed previous through making a project network, this would cause little or no concerns to the company as it allows changes to be produced before crucial areas of the condominium had been constructed Newell (2002) advised that assumptions must be created for the purpose of task planning. However in Hodgkins’ circumstance, her assumptions are flawed and not thought through properly. The girl assumed that most buyers probably would not customize their particular units and would reconcile easily so that was given.

Simply by assuming this sort of scenarios, the girl had overlooked the target marketplace for the project, ie the rich. This problem in reasoning disrupted the completion of the project, raised overall finances and brought on much dissatisfaction among the project group. To create matters most severe, the online strategy adopted simply by Hodgkins is that of recommendations. With complaints of wait, cted the sales efficiency of the job was damaged and a poor image of Regency was expected. Hodgkins may have done preferable to have done exploration on the shopping for patterns of her target market or used to her contacts, market professionnals or even to have discussed with her team.

If the previously mentioned problem was going to be resolved or recognized earlier, the effect would have been minimized. Although assumptions might not be a bad thing and in truth are urged, they must become with a a contingency plan as well as for Hodgkins case, she does not seem to have any. almost 8. conclusion The Regency Plaza project was obviously a race against time and time means money. This situation put Hodgkins in a tight spot and many decisions needed to be manufactured immediately in order to avoid any delays. Many irrational decisions had been thus produced which influenced the overall progress of the project.

As a job manager, success of the task should be the initially priority. Discovering possible alternatives to handle the tough condition is critical. Although a lot of possible solutions were supplied, however Hogkins did not appear to have used many of them to solve the current concerns related to the project. Lock (1992) stated that to achieve the project targets, People, Conversation, Jobs and Resources should be properly prepared. Planning and coordination is crucial. To summarise, Project Managers are key to the success of virtually any project and therefore are worth their weight in gold.. Appendix Responsibility Project Matrix(RAM) Task/Resource |PM: Hodgkins |KDS |O’Brian and Sinclair |Kelly Building |Millers Designer: Randolph |Consultant: Farley |Sales Team | |Sales and Marketing |R | | | | |C |R | |Building Architectural |A |R |R |C | |C | | |Customization |I | |C |R | | | | | Managing the subcontractors | |I |I |R | | | | |Miller’s interior design |I |I |C |C |R | | | |Construction accounts |R | |R |R | | | | | R = Accountable (People who also do the work) A sama dengan Accountable (People who make sure the work gets done)

C = Conferred with (People whom provide insight before and through the work) I = Informed (People who are kept educated of progress) Blue containers refers to the stakeholders twelve. REFERENCES 1 . Ballard G , Whelton M, 2002, Wicked Concerns in Project Definition, Recovered on 14th September 2009, from http://www. leanconstruction. org/pdf/WickedProblemsinProjectDefinitionIGLC10. pdf 2 . Gray C. F , Larson Elizabeth. W, 2008, Project Administration: the bureaucratic process, fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, America. several. Juan R. S, 2009, Good Job Manager, Recovered on 26th September 2009, from http://www. gaebler. om/Good-Project-Manager. htm 4. Lewis M. P, 2005, Project Organizing, Scheduling , Control next Edition, McGraw Hill, America 5. Fasten D, year 1994, Project Managing 5th Model, Gower Creating Company Limited, America six. Meredith T. R , Mantel H. J, the year 2003, Project Administration, A Managerial Approach sixth Edition, John Wiley , Sons, America 7. Newell M. Watts, 2002, Finding your way through the Project Management Professional PMP 2nd Edition, Amacom, America almost 8. The Responsibility Task Matrix (RAM), 2009, Retrieved on 20th September 2009, from http://www. mindtools. com/pages/article/newPPM_RAM. htm being unfaithful. Weiss L.

W , Wysocki 3rd there’s r. K, 1992, 5-Phase Project Management, Perseus Books Publishing, America 15. Yagiz U, 2008, Job Planning, Retrieved on 14th September 2009, from http://www. emu. edu. tr/~oyagiz/MGMT409/MGMT409-05-BW. pdf BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . Berkun T, 2005, The ability of Project Administration, O’Reilly Media, Inc., America 2 . Generic A , Langdon K, 2007, Deal with Projects Dorling Kindersley Limited, London 3. Burke L, 2003, Project Management Planning and Control Techniques fourth Edition, Steve Wiley , Son, UK 4. Egeland B, 2009, Project Management Tips, Recovered on 25th September 2009 from http://pmtips. et/ 5. Lewis L. P, 3 years ago, Fundamentals of Project Managing 3rd Model, Amacon, America 6. Lockyer K, 85, Critical Way Analysis fourth Edition, The Bath Press, Great Britain several. Lovegrove H, 2008, Good Project Managers are difficult to get!, Retrieved on 23th Sept 2009 from http://www. pmhut. com/good-project-managers-are-hard-to-find eight. Randolph Watts. A, 1988, Effective Job Planning and Management, Getting the Job Carried out, Prentice Hall, UK being unfaithful. Reh Farreneheit. J, 2009, Project Supervision 101, Retrieved on sixteenth September from http://management. about. om/cs/projectmanagement/a/PM101. htm 10. Shackleton E, 2006, Managing your people, actual life lessons coming from top business leaders, BASSE CONSOMMATION Books, London 11. Tusler R, mil novecentos e noventa e seis, An Overview of Project Risk Management, Retrieved in 22th Sept. 2010 2009 via http://www. netcomuk. co. uk/~rtusler/project/riskprin. html , , , , , , , , Overall performance Cost Period Constrain Boost Accept Tagging Consultant (Farley) Clients Oral Neighbourhood Groupings Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) KDS Co-workers Regency Hotel Management Job Manager Hodgkins Decision Making Process

  • Category: management
  • Words: 5267
  • Pages: 18
  • Project Type: Essay

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