Reduction of adolescent pregnancy composition
Description: Recommended language style: English (U. S. ). Each student will result in a 15–20 site paper by which they will go over current issues facing teenagers today and exactly how a counselor should manage these areas. The conventional paper must be in APA style with a the least 15 current references (within five years). This newspaper is to be 15-20 pages in length, and that means the body of the paper itself -not it page, abstract, etc…The theme is Adolescent Sexuality: ELIMINATION OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY.
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Adolescent Sexuality: REDUCTION OF TEEN PREGNANCY
Adolescent Libido: Prevention of Teenage Being pregnant
Summary: Among the commonest concerns faced simply by teens inside the several nations around the world, has been the concern of adolescent pregnancy. Though, the rates of young pregnancy will be decreasing, there are still several complications associated with the issue. As young pregnancy could be a huge interpersonal issue and many of them usually do not want a child, such pregnancy can create a adverse impact on the caliber of life from the teenage few.
The rise in teen pregnancy have been due to a number of issues including faster start maturity, better occasions of premarital sexual intercourse, etc . Besides, teenage pregnant state is usually certainly not preferred as a result of several concerns such as increased rates of defects inside the developing kid, greater amount of maternal problems, cultural concerns, problems of the mother in bringing up the child, etc . In all instances, efforts should be made to support the pregnant teenage lady rather than dismiss her.
A teenage motherhood prevention system should take a look at several areas that include teenagers which include career expansion, education, STD’s, contraception, counseling, drug abuse, could health, etc . It should involve several parties including the parents, politicians, cultural workers, child and women groupings, NGO’s, etc . The two methods that are employed frequently include abstinence and contraception. Studies have shown that school-based prevention program were successful in decreasing the rates of pregnancy amidst teens. Initiatives should be to include the whole society inside the teenage pregnant state prevention program.
There are several factors that may cause the young adult to indulge in irresponsible sexual behavior which includes social elements, psychological elements, family elements, etc . The counselors must always try to range from the parents, family and the entire culture in the avoidance programs. If abstinence-based applications seem to be tough, then the contraception-based programs might appear to be effective. The counselor might have to follow a all natural approach in solving the problems of the teenagers. The counselor should determine the characteristics from the teens and accordingly make use of these features to motivate them further more. Teens in whose academic efficiency is outstanding may seem to gain more from pregnancy elimination programs.
The teenage pregnant state program also need to look at several issues that encompass teenagers which include STD’s, preventive medicines, drug abuse, jobs, higher education, and so forth It is also important that the young pregnancy avoidance program will help pregnancy adolescent girls to quality life without any problems. They must be taught how to handle the social and family pressure that may develop caused by unwanted pregnancy. It is important that the teenage system involve the teenagers. America HHS plus the CDC have shown a lot interesting in the teen pregnancy programs in recent years.
In developing nations, the rates of teenager pregnancy are recorded the go up. On the other hand, in the developed nations such as the US and Canada, the prices of teen pregnancies are decreasing because of greater awareness levels. In the US, about ninety-seven per every 1000 teenage girls (usually between ages of 15 to 19 years) get pregnant annually. Most of these pregnancies (about three-quarters) are usually not wanted. During the years 1999-2000, the rates of teenage pregnancies have lowered. The costs of young pregnancies are about twenty-eight %, as well as the rate of teenage childbirths is about twenty one %. There might be several causes of teenage pregnancies (Weiss, 2k & Huberman, 2005). For instance ,: –
1 . Young ladies are maturing faster, at this point between the age range of 12 to 13 years.
2 . Adolescent sex is very common. Before the girl extends to adulthood in america, about 85 % of them would have had sex.
3. Young adults are less very likely to take safeguards in order to prevent pregnancy.
4. Teenagers are not aware of the reproductive issues that can develop throughout the pregnancy period (Weiss, 2000).
Teenage pregnancy can possess serious effects and ramifications (Weiss, 2000). These include: –
1 . Several problems such as miscarriage, neonatal fatality, stillborn baby, maternal sickness, etc are higher in teenage girls as compared to pregnant women.
2 . Children born by teenage girls have got several problems including developmental problems, congential defects, low birth pounds, neglect, child abuse, etc .
3. Socially, adolescent pregnancy is usually not accepted.
some. The teen mother is more likely not to care for the child. She actually is more likely to smoke cigars, consume extreme alcohol, subject the baby to abuse, and so forth
a few. The government must spend a huge amount to solve the difficulties related to teenage pregnancies. Included in this are public health concerns, housing, assistance, childcare, legalities (Weiss, 2000).
Teenage being pregnant prevention courses should have a specific objectives and goals. Research have shown that from past teenage pregnancies that the Socio-economic life, standard of living, etc, will be very poor pursuing teenage motherhood. As it is one of the major public health worries, the political figures should take in the issue over a priority basis. It is important that the teenage parents be backed rather than being ignored. The primary goals of any teen pregnancy software are to: –
1 . To create down the teen pregnancy costs by by least 40 % by the year 2010 (this is usually an objective in the Healthy Persons 2010).
2 . To incorporate the teens themselves in the program so that the initiatives manufactured come from this group of the population itself. Young adults should be knowledgeable, trained and employed in the teenage welfare programs. Unique emphasis ought to be made in focusing on the teenage motherhood prevention.
3. The teenage motherhood prevention courses should also give attention to other areas which includes drug abuse, gynecological issues, profession development, counseling, etc . This would ensure that all-round the teen is given interest.
four. Voluntary companies should be oriented towards understanding teenage behavior and changing them in order to bring about better attitudes and practices.
5. Many stakeholders such as the politicians, authorities, judiciary, sociable welfare groupings, public, ladies groups, and many others, should be linked to these courses.
six. Efforts should be organized with the national, regional and the regional levels in order to help teenagers to develop suitable attitudes and behaviors towards teenage pregnancies.
several. Adoption of higher prevention techniques such as sexual education, contraception, avoiding the danger factors, and so forth
almost eight. Supporting the teenagers and the parents so as to help them produce a good long term. Also, to make sure that the teens get appropriate help in difficult situations.
9. Making sure the pregnant teen mom is given work during the being pregnant period. This may ensure that the two mother as well as the developing child is healthy and is capable of get suitable medical attention. Many may think that in a adolescent pregnancy prevention program, the difficulties relating to the pregnancy period need not be considered. However , this could be a location of concentrate, as it might help to prevent further concerns (Blank, 2003).
The Government has started to include teenage pregnancy prevention programs as one of the priority areas for the social trigger. Initially, the federal government had a large amount of problems associated with these programs. However , following a few primary hiccups, these programs have got turned out to benefit the teenagers and the families in developing a productive life.
One of the programs intended for teenage being pregnant prevention program is the College Health Guidelines and Programs Study 2006 or SHPPS 2006. It can be basically performed to study the various health courses and plans conduced in the classroom level. in the year 2000, about 45 % in the states belonging to various midsection schools taught about motherhood prevention, and the year 2006 it elevated to regarding 59%. With relation to large schools, this figure identical. The number of hours spent instructing on motherhood prevention as well varied in high, central and fundamental schools. In high universities it was a few. 5 hours, 2 . six in central schools and 1 . several in elementary schools. In high colleges, 2 . 0 teachers were required to train about pregnant state prevention in the year 2000, which increased to 2 . six in the year 2006.
About 35 % in the districts and about 20 % of the declares provided about pregnancy elimination services. These kinds of services were either offered on a one to one basis or on the group basis. About twenty-eight. 4 % of the area authority presented to services for the local property rather than for the schools house. About 97 % in the schools provided for pregnancy elimination.
About twenty-eight. 7 % of the colleges provided for being pregnant prevention programs through arrangement from outdoors organizations. The quantity of staff members who also received training also different. About 31. 6 % of the staff had training on being pregnant prevention, 17 % had training about prenatal treatment and 13 % had training in day care, 2 years ahead of the program began. 20 % of the psychiatric service staff had learning pregnancy elimination and 13 % got training in day care (SHPPS, 2006).
Currently, there are many issues, that could be responsible for promoting teenage pregnant state prevention. A lot of the teenage avoidance programs may not be successful, as they do not require the contemporary society as a whole. This software strategy might be such that this lacks some amount of reality resulting in a failure. Therefore, the interpersonal blanket needed for the program to be successful should be higher. Furstenbergviews that the discord present upon sexuality needs to be resolved especially the cultural as well as the political habits. As the attitudes and behavior of the society towards teenage pregnancy has not been remedied so far, it might be difficult to control teenage being pregnant. Hence, methods adopted to avoid pregnancy may be adopted. The intervening factors include: –
1 . Managing age of access to the intimate unions – There has been a dramatic embrace the number of teens who have sexual before the matrimony. In the fifties and the 1960’s, this determine was about a small portion, and in the 1970’s as well as the 1980’s this figure was 20 %. There could be various causes in this including peer pressures, lack of pressure from your household, trend in dating, etc . There has been the rise in the cases of venereal diseases affecting the teenage human population. Many a times, the teenage inhabitants is not exposed to family or parental discussions in sex and childbearing. This has created increased number of problems.
Family talks usually generate healthy procedures and thinking. Studies executed in colleges on teen boys and girls indicated that family educating had a wonderful role. The moment family resistance was present without any kind of support or understanding, the teenagers indulged in sexual acts. One significant fact to make note of was that it had been not always true when there was clearly an increase in the teenage sexual acts, there would be a rise in the adolescent pregnancy rates. In the year 1979, there was a growth by about 60 % in the rates of sex in teenage girls. Yet , there was the rise in 55 % in the contraceptive employ. Studies show that use of contraceptives usually did not aid to prevent pregnancy, and hence something more was required (Kohli, 2007).
2 . Contraception make use of – Studies conducted in the US and the European region demonstrated that even though the adolescent sexual activity costs were comparable in both the regions, the pace of teen pregnancy costs were bigger in the US in comparison to the Western European location. One of the main reasons as to why teenage girls become pregnant is that they will not stress after the need to make use of a contraceptive. Some teenagers believe that they are certainly not sexually energetic and think that they would not want a contraceptive. Teenagers will also unlike to make long-term decisions about their life.
They may behave in an immature and irresponsible approach due to their early age. Teenagers may possibly always think shy of having a birth control method. They may as well not consider the risk of having a baby as genuine and may not really use their particular knowledge to help prevent the pregnant state. Many girls fear that they will be losing a boy friend because of rejection if perhaps they did not have sex with him. This sort of fear features lead to many problems. In true simple fact, it has been noticed that ladies usually like long-term associations and males prefer initial relationships. The majority of boys could have no idea of contraception and pregnancy, and would generally leave it up towards the female to stop herself coming from getting pregnant (Kohli, 2007).
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Psychological elements associated with young pregnancy – Most of the teenage girls do not intent to have a child during their young period because of a variety of factors including the need to grow and develop scholastically, social elements, etc . Only a small portion of teens would like to provide an infant and improve their mission in life. The bringing of any child might also increase the partnership and the connecting to their boyfriends. Teenage pregnant state would also improve the chances of becoming self-employed, stepping within their motherhood, etc . However , the psychological complications created by simply teenage motherhood are more generally negative.
It creates a sense of low self-esteem. Teenagers who get pregnant may not be offered the same amount of respect and esteem as before. This is mainly because of the engagement in sex. These psychological stresses would igual lead to poor academic activities. Poor performance in scholars may in return create a large amount of psychological pressure for the teenager and could lead to irresponsible sexual habit. If the sex behavior is accountable and if the child was clever and understanding, it was located that the academics record was also good (Kohli, 2007).
Family Factors – Relatives communication contains a vital key in helping stop teenage pregnancy. The mom and the child need to maintain vital conversations on how should certainly teenage being pregnant are averted. The teen girl might use contraceptive infrequently and incorrectly if perhaps not suggested by the mother. In the other side, important discussions between father plus the son would hold the key to responsible sex behavior with the male teenagers. The parents and the child has to invariable dialogue about sex-related issues. This would definitely prevent whatever untoward by happening. Frequently, it was discovered that the sex behavior with the parents would not have an natural part to play in permitting your child to have sex.
Sons were less likely to adhere to the parent advice about sex compared to the daughters. Parents, who were friendly and receptive towards their children, resulted in the teenagers turning into less sexually active. In case the parents take up the issue of contraceptive and sexual acts with the teenager at a age, then your chances of the child staying near the parents is definitely high. Studies have shown that even if the father and mother approves of the child’s sex practice through nonverbal means, the chances of expanding healthy lovemaking behavior was high. In traditional households, the chances of using a binding daughter were higher, than the son. If the mother was a house wife, the chances of the daughter staying with the mother’s advice had been higher.
It absolutely was found that in the males, peer engagement had an increased role to play than family members factors. The reason is , boys may well not want to talk about any sex issue with the parent and in turn prefer to talk to the friends. Kids may only want to discuss lovemaking issues with persons of the same era and of the same sexual. Any poor company would create irresponsible sexual tendencies.
On the other hand, with regards to girls, they are more often afflicted with the guidance of the male teenager compared to the guidance of their feminine friends. When a single father or mother existed at home, the chances of developing irresponsible sexual behavior was higher. Sex abuse and problems in the family, was more likely to induce undesired sex behavior inside the teen. The teenager was likely never to give importance to do it yourself. Teenager who have previously suffered from certain mental disorders or perhaps those who were involved in offense were in a greater chance of becoming pregnant (Kohli, 2007).
Cultural factors – Children owned by certain cultural groups are more liable not to enjoy sexual activity or perhaps use contraception as a indicate to prevent pregnancy. It is usually viewed that in restrictive communities, the chances of becoming pregnant during the teenage period happen to be lesser. The main reason for this is the restrictions positioned by the households on the child to stay from sex. Socio-economic status as well plays a significant role in assisting to prevent having a baby. Hispanics and also other sexual minorities due to their reduce Socio-economic skills are less likely to receive intimate advice from your home and at school. They may likewise lack medical facilities and contraception (Kohli, 2007).
A counselor conducting teenage reduction programs should use various methods to stop the teenage girl from pregnancy. Some of the most often utilized ways of preventing teenage pregnancy contain use of contraception and abstaining from sexual. The counselor needs to ensure that both these methods are used either alone or perhaps in combination with each other, depending on the situation (Kohli, 2007).
Children who have belong to communities, which are having strict sex code, want the young adults not to take pleasure in sexual activity. Generally there may challenges from the friends and family, school and society for the teenager to avoid sex. The teenagers may be told to delay most sexual human relationships until relationship. In such a circumstances, the counsellor would have to produce attitudes and behaviors in the teenager so they really would delay all sexual activity until adulthood. One of the laws and regulations developed in the year 1996 was the Welfare reform law which gave labor and birth to the progress the Continence education program.
Federal money were being utilized in such a course to lawyer and teach the teenagers of premarital sex plus the need to avoid it. Annually about 40 million us dollars was invested in the program. Several activities were a part of this software. The HRSA developed a community-based celibacy program in the year 2001. Government funds had been utilized to educate the public about premarital love-making. They also conducted education applications for students between ages of 12 to 18 years. A lot more than 20 mil dollars was being spend annually on such programs (Kohli, 2007 & USHHS, 2002).
The counselor would have a task to play furthermore of the family. He ought to work in close association while using family and the school-based actions. Frequently, the counselor will be advising the college of the improved need to have school-based sex education classes. A lot of parents may not want their children to have school-based sex education classes and in turn prefer to give them advice in person. In this kind of circumstances, is it doesn’t duty in the counselor to advise the fogeys of the importance of such activities. In teenagers it truly is found that abstinence-based software may be difficult to prevent these people from succumb to sexual activity, yet would definitely assistance to prevent all of them from succumb to sexual activity until the age of 18 years (Kohli, 2007 & USHHS, 2002d).
As teenage pregnancy provides multiple factors responsible, the program to be successful and effective must adopt an alternative approach to resolve the problem. One of the issues that the counselor should emphasis on may be the need to continue education and literary to a higher level. Teens having larger intellectual capability are more likely to obtain motivated and continue with education over a longer term.
Several teenagers might also like the issue of getting applied and standing on one’s very own feet. It can be found that such college students are more likely to the actual advise in the counselor and respond. The counselor will need to continuously stimulate the young adult to use birth control method during sexual activities or if possible to abstain from sex (Children’s Aid Society Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Reduction Program, 2006).
The counselor should also use the family like a role unit to ensure that the teenager retreats into healthy lovemaking practices. The teenager ought to be convinced regarding the strong family jewelry that are present. They should be informed to take all their mother and father while role versions and business lead a lifestyle that is going to be constructive in the future. Students belonging to various schools may include a lot of creativity housed within all of them. They would like to use this skill to develop a future. This may also be applied as a stage on which further more motivation can be performed (Children’s Help Society Competicion Adolescent Being pregnant Prevention Program, 2006).
The intervention performed should not be single measures being a number of factors are involved which can be related to teen pregnancy. A few counselors could utilize numerous psychotherapy techniques to help the young adults to adopt healthier sexual practices. Some of the psychotherapy techniques that might be utilized included family remedy, group therapy, support groups, few therapy, and many others (Children’s Help Society Profesi�n Adolescent Pregnant state Prevention Software, 2006).
Every one of the issues that cover sex and teenage matters need to be fixed out in a teenage pregnant state prevention system. Some of these issues include HIV/AIDS, responsible lovemaking behavior, usage of contraceptives, substance abuse, etc . The teenagers must be motivated to lead a productive and a productive lifestyle. Many young adults may feel depressed and unattainable in case that they fall pregnant. However , a counselor must also be available to tackle this kind of situations and provide the young adults a way out. The counselor would need to adopt a stand that could encourage the teenager. Some of the points that the adolescent could be encouraged include: –
1 . Make the teenager realize that young bloodstream could be useful for constructive purposes.
2 . Helps the teen to build a life filled up with purpose and responsibility.
3. Building a very encouraging future.
4. Aiding teenagers with had past pregnancies and abortions to lead a existence filled with desire and top quality (Children’s Aid Society Trayectoria Adolescent Pregnant state Prevention System, 2006).
However , this is not often the case with teenagers that have had past pregnancies. Teenagers who have acquired previous pregnancies may be pressurised from different quarters. They are often forced to business lead a life filled with low income, misery, hopelessness and depression. The counselor should in such circumstances be available to uplift this kind of teenagers to lead a quality life. The counselor should consider such teenagers to be at a high risk for despression symptoms and suicidal tendencies.
He should be able to assess the presence of such risk and accordingly take procedures to protect the teenager. Teenagers under the issues of your life, require take pleasure in and treatment. For this reason, they could indulge in lovemaking activities. However , the performance of such activities may result in a critical error leading to the feminine girl getting pregnant. The counselor should provide hope and motivation pertaining to the young adult to lead a fruitful lifestyle (Children’s Help Society Trayectoria Adolescent Pregnant state Prevention Plan, 2006).
One of the most effective programs when it comes to interpersonal issues just like teenage pregnancy, community-based techniques seems to be extremely superior. The united states Health and Man Services is one firm that is supporting the use of community-based programs to get the prevention of being pregnant amongst young adults. They would use various solutions such as economical, human, supportive, infrastructure, material, etc, to execute various activities such as building partnerships, exploring, monitoring, assessing, planning, disseminating knowledge, and so on (Children’s Aid Society Trayectoria Adolescent Pregnant state Prevention Program, 2006 & US HHS, 2002).
The CDC has taken a defieicency of teenage motherhood prevention over a priority basis since the year 1995. The programs support various actions in order to help prevent teenage pregnancies. These include community actions, synchronised efforts, recognize shortcomings, figuring out and allocating resources, analyzing the task, etc . A number of governmental and nongovernmental can be taking part in such activities, including neighborhood, regional and federal (US HHS, 2002).
Several other concerns need to be regarded in the adolescent pregnancy elimination program. Pertaining to the dotacion of reproductive : health services, several medical insurance options should be available to the teenagers (such as Medical planning and Treatment Services). Several of the State, Regional and Federal Public Health programs such as the State Children’s Medical health insurance Program (SCHIP), Maternal and Child Overall health Services Stop Grant, and so on are meant for teenagers health and to stop pregnancy in young teenage girls. Teenagers also need to have establishments to help them with several other issues such as substance abuse, alcohol abuse, legal issues, etc (US HHS, 2002).
In a adolescent pregnancy reduction program, through the implementation certain principles need to be adhered to: –
· The aims, goals and the expected final result of the program should be precise.
· The mode by which these kinds of objectives are to be achieved should be determined.
· Cooperation should can be found between the governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations.
· The involvement of teens inside the program.
· Those activities and the articles of the system performed needs to be attractive to the teens.
· Every activities should be constructive in nature.
· Social activities and local resources would provide huge amount of benefits.
· Use of local volunteers and counselors might also aid in the program.
· Long term support should be provided towards the teens in assisting to carve out something beneficial for the future.
· The two measures by which the program would be acting include abstinence and contraception. Continence can hold off the interest in indulging in sexual acts by the teenager. Contraception strategies and tactics should be trained. Males should be encouraged to consider contraception employ, as it is more convenient and decreases the load around the females.
· The programs must be developmentally appropriate.
· Decision-making expertise and problem-solving methods needs to be taught for the teenagers.
· A lot of health services such as gynecological services, obstetrics services, young health, motherhood testing, prevention and treatment for STD’s, contraceptive therapies, etc . The services should certainly incorporated certain features which includes confidentiality, educated consent, overall flexibility in appointments, free providers, etc . (Davies, 2007).
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